Embargo End Date2019-11-15
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/629873
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Access RestrictionsAt the time of archiving, the student author of this dissertation opted to temporarily restrict access to it. The full text of this dissertation became available to the public after the expiration of the embargo on 2019-11-15.
AbstractThe topic of multiple input multiple output (MIMO) radar recently gained considerable interest because it can transmit partially correlated or fully independent waveforms. The inherited waveform diversity helps MIMO radars identify more targets and adds flexibility to the beampattern design. The realized advantages come at the expense of enhanced processing requirements and increased system complexity. In this regards, a closed-form method is derived to generate practical finite-alphabet waveforms with specific correlation properties to match the desired beampattern. Next, the performance of adaptive estimation techniques is examined. Indeed, target localization or reflection coefficient estimation usually involves optimizing a given cost-function over a grid of points. The estimation performance is directly affected by the grid resolution. In this work, the cost function of Capon and amplitude and phase estimation (APES) adaptive beamformers are reformulated. The new cost functions can be evaluated using the two-dimensional fast-Fourier-transform (2D-FFT) which reduces the estimation runtime. Generalized expressions of the Cram´er-Rao lower bound are computed to assess the performance of our estimators. Afterward, a novel estimation algorithm based on the monopulse technique is proposed. In comparison with adaptive methods, monopulse requires less number of received pulses. Hence, it is widely used for fast target localization and tracking purposes. This work suggests an approach that localizes two point targets present in the hemisphere using one set of four antennas. To separate targets sharing the same elevation or azimuth angles, a second set of antennas is required. Two solutions are suggested to combine the outputs from the antenna sets and improve the overall detection performance. The last part of the dissertation focuses on the application and implementation side of radars rather than the theoretical aspects. It describes the realized hardware and software design of a compact portable 24 GHz frequency-modulated-continuous-wave (FMCW) radar. The prototype can assist the visually impaired during their outdoor journeys and prevents collisions with their surrounding environment. Moreover, the device performs diverse tasks such as range-direction mapping, velocity estimation, presence detection, and vital sign monitoring. The experimental result section demonstrates the device’s capabilities in different use-cases.
CitationJardak, S. (2018). Contributions Towards Modern MIMO and Passive Radars. KAUST Research Repository. https://doi.org/10.25781/KAUST-1965Z
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Retrieving surface soil moisture at high spatio-temporal resolution from a synergy between Sentinel-1 radar and Landsat thermal data: A study case over bare soilAmazirh, Abdelhakim; Merlin, Olivier; Er-Raki, Salah; Gao, Qi; Rivalland, Vincent; Malbeteau, Yoann; Khabba, Said; Escorihuela, Maria José (Remote Sensing of Environment, Elsevier BV, 2018-04-24) [Article]Radar data have been used to retrieve and monitor the surface soil moisture (SM) changes in various conditions. However, the calibration of radar models whether empirically or physically-based, is still subject to large uncertainties especially at high-spatial resolution. To help calibrate radar-based retrieval approaches to supervising SM at high resolution, this paper presents an innovative synergistic method combining Sentinel-1 (S1) microwave and Landsat-7/8 (L7/8) thermal data. First, the S1 backscatter coefficient was normalized by its maximum and minimum values obtained during 2015–2016 agriculture season. Second, the normalized S1 backscatter coefficient was calibrated from reference points provided by a thermal-derived SM proxy named soil evaporative efficiency (SEE, defined as the ratio of actual to potential soil evaporation). SEE was estimated as the radiometric soil temperature normalized by its minimum and maximum values reached in a water-saturated and dry soil, respectively. We estimated both soil temperature endmembers by using a soil energy balance model forced by available meteorological forcing. The proposed approach was evaluated against in situ SM measurements collected over three bare soil fields in a semi-arid region in Morocco and we compared it against a classical approach based on radar data only. The two polarizations VV (vertical transmit and receive) and VH (vertical transmit and horizontal receive) of the S1 data available over the area are tested to analyse the sensitivity of radar signal to SM at high incidence angles (39°–43°). We found that the VV polarization was better correlated to SM than the VH polarization with a determination coefficient of 0.47 and 0.28, respectively. By combining S1 (VV) and L7/8 data, we reduced the root mean square difference between satellite and in situ SM to 0.03 m3 m−3, which is far smaller than 0.16 m3 m−3 when using S1 (VV) only.
Integrating gravimetric and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for enhancing reservoir history matching of carbonate gas and volatile oil reservoirsKatterbauer, Klemens; Arango, Santiago; Sun, Shuyu; Hoteit, Ibrahim (Geophysical Prospecting, Wiley, 2016-08-25) [Article]Reservoir history matching is assuming a critical role in understanding reservoir characteristics, tracking water fronts, and forecasting production. While production data have been incorporated for matching reservoir production levels and estimating critical reservoir parameters, the sparse spatial nature of this dataset limits the efficiency of the history matching process. Recently, gravimetry techniques have significantly advanced to the point of providing measurement accuracy in the microgal range and consequently can be used for the tracking of gas displacement caused by water influx. While gravity measurements provide information on subsurface density changes, i.e., the composition of the reservoir, these data do only yield marginal information about temporal displacements of oil and inflowing water. We propose to complement gravimetric data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar surface deformation data to exploit the strong pressure deformation relationship for enhancing fluid flow direction forecasts. We have developed an ensemble Kalman-filter-based history matching framework for gas, gas condensate, and volatile oil reservoirs, which synergizes time-lapse gravity and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for improved reservoir management and reservoir forecasts. Based on a dual state-parameter estimation algorithm separating the estimation of static reservoir parameters from the dynamic reservoir parameters, our numerical experiments demonstrate that history matching gravity measurements allow monitoring the density changes caused by oil-gas phase transition and water influx to determine the saturation levels, whereas the interferometric synthetic aperture radar measurements help to improve the forecasts of hydrocarbon production and water displacement directions. The reservoir estimates resulting from the dual filtering scheme are on average 20%-40% better than those from the joint estimation scheme, but require about a 30% increase in computational cost. © 2016 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.
MIMO-Radar Waveform Design for Beampattern Using Particle-Swarm-OptimisationAhmed, Sajid; Thompson, John S.; Mulgrew, Bernard (2012 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2012-12-04) [Conference Paper]Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) radars have many advantages over their phased-array counterparts: improved spatial resolution; better parametric identifiably and greater flexibility to acheive the desired transmit beampattern. The desired transmit beampatterns using MIMO-radar requires the waveforms to have arbitrary auto- and cross-correlations. To design such waveforms, generally a waveform covariance matrix, R, is synthesised first then the actual waveforms are designed. Synthesis of the covariance matrix, R, is a constrained optimisation problem, which requires R to be positive semidefinite and all of its diagonal elements to be equal. To simplify the first constraint the covariance matrix is synthesised indirectly from its square-root matrix U, while for the second constraint the elements of the m-th column of U are parameterised using the coordinates of the m-hypersphere. This implicitly fulfils both of the constraints and enables us to write the cost-function in closed form. Then the cost-function is optimised using a simple particle-swarm-optimisation (PSO) technique, which requires only the cost-function and can optimise any choice of norm cost-function. © 2012 IEEE.