Sinking particles promote vertical connectivity in the ocean microbiome
Duarte, Carlos M.
Gasol, Josep M.
Sala, M. Montserrat
KAUST DepartmentRed Sea Research Center (RSRC)
Online Publication Date2018-07-02
Print Publication Date2018-07-17
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/628392
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AbstractThe sinking of organic particles formed in the photic layer is a main vector of carbon export into the deep ocean. Although sinking particles are heavily colonized by microbes, so far it has not been explored whether this process plays a role in transferring prokaryotic diversity from surface to deep oceanic layers. Using Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we explore here the vertical connectivity of the ocean microbiome by characterizing marine prokaryotic communities associated with five different size fractions and examining their compositional variability from surface down to 4,000 m across eight stations sampled in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans during the Malaspina 2010 Expedition. Our results show that the most abundant prokaryotes in the deep ocean are also present in surface waters. This vertical community connectivity seems to occur predominantly through the largest particles because communities in the largest size fractions showed the highest taxonomic similarity throughout the water column, whereas free-living communities were more isolated vertically. Our results further suggest that particle colonization processes occurring in surface waters determine to some extent the composition and biogeography of bathypelagic communities. Overall, we postulate that sinking particles function as vectors that inoculate viable particle-attached surface microbes into the deep-sea realm, determining to a considerable extent the structure, functioning, and biogeography of deep ocean communities.
CitationMestre M, Ruiz-González C, Logares R, Duarte CM, Gasol JM, et al. (2018) Sinking particles promote vertical connectivity in the ocean microbiome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 115: E6799–E6807. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1802470115.
SponsorsWe thank all the scientists and crew for their support during sample collection in the Malaspina 2010 cruise and especially E. Borrull, C. Díez-Vives, E. Lara, D. Vaqué, G. Salazar, and F. Cornejo-Castillo for DNA sampling. C. Antequera kindly provided laboratory assistance during DNA extraction. We are also grateful to G. Salazar for his help in adapting the PAN-Index to a multiple size fractionation. We thank the Marbits bioinformatics platform of the Institut de Ciències del Mar in Barcelona and especially Pablo Sánchez for computing support. M.M. was supported by a Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Junta para la Ampliación de Estudios Grant (CSIC-JAE-Predoc Grant) and by the Ministry of Labor, Employment and Social Security. R.L. was supported by a Ramón y Cajal fellowship (RYC-2013-12554, Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO), Spain), and C.R.-G. was supported by a Juan de la Cierva fellowship (IJCI-2015-23505). This is a contribution to the Malaspina 2010 Expedition, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through the Consolider-Ingenio program (Reference CSD2008-00077).
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