Microbial ecology of deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basins

Abstract
Deep hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs) are unique water bodies occurring within fractures at the bottom of the sea, where the dissolution of anciently buried evaporites created dense anoxic brines that are separated by a chemocline/pycnocline from the overlying oxygenated deep-seawater column. DHABs have been described in the Gulf of Mexico, the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea and the Red Sea. They are characterized by prolonged historical separation of the brines from the upper water column due to lack of mixing and by extreme conditions of salinity, anoxia, and relatively high hydrostatic pressure and temperatures. Due to these combined selection factors, unique microbial assemblages thrive in these polyextreme ecosystems. The topological localization of the different taxa in the brine-seawater transition zone coupled with the metabolic interactions and niche adaptations determine the metabolic functioning and biogeochemistry of DHABs. In particular, inherent metabolic strategies accompanied by genetic adaptations have provided insights on how prokaryotic communities can adapt to salt-saturated condition. Here, we review the current knowledge on the diversity, genomics, metabolisms and ecology of prokaryotes in DHABs.

Citation
Merlino G, Barozzi A, Michoud G, Ngugi DK, Daffonchio D (2018) Microbial ecology of deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basins. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiy085.

Acknowledgements
This work was supported by the Centre Competitive Funding (CCF) of the Red Sea Research Centre (RSRC) at the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST).

Publisher
Oxford University Press (OUP)

Journal
FEMS Microbiology Ecology

DOI
10.1093/femsec/fiy085

Additional Links
https://academic.oup.com/femsec/advance-article/doi/10.1093/femsec/fiy085/4995905

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