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dc.contributor.authorTietze, Max Lutz
dc.contributor.authorBenduhn, Johannes
dc.contributor.authorPahner, Paul
dc.contributor.authorNell, Bernhard
dc.contributor.authorSchwarze, Martin
dc.contributor.authorKleemann, Hans
dc.contributor.authorKrammer, Markus
dc.contributor.authorZojer, Karin
dc.contributor.authorVandewal, Koen
dc.contributor.authorLeo, Karl
dc.date.accessioned2018-04-16T11:27:41Z
dc.date.available2018-04-16T11:27:41Z
dc.date.issued2018-03-15
dc.identifier.citationTietze ML, Benduhn J, Pahner P, Nell B, Schwarze M, et al. (2018) Elementary steps in electrical doping of organic semiconductors. Nature Communications 9. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-03302-z.
dc.identifier.issn2041-1723
dc.identifier.doi10.1038/s41467-018-03302-z
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/627499
dc.description.abstractFermi level control by doping is established since decades in inorganic semiconductors and has been successfully introduced in organic semiconductors. Despite its commercial success in the multi-billion OLED display business, molecular doping is little understood, with its elementary steps controversially discussed and mostly-empirical-materials design. Particularly puzzling is the efficient carrier release, despite a presumably large Coulomb barrier. Here we quantitatively investigate doping as a two-step process, involving single-electron transfer from donor to acceptor molecules and subsequent dissociation of the ground-state integer-charge transfer complex (ICTC). We show that carrier release by ICTC dissociation has an activation energy of only a few tens of meV, despite a Coulomb binding of several 100 meV. We resolve this discrepancy by taking energetic disorder into account. The overall doping process is explained by an extended semiconductor model in which occupation of ICTCs causes the classically known reserve regime at device-relevant doping concentrations.
dc.description.sponsorshipThis research was funded by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) through the InnoProfile project “Organische p-i-n Bauelemente 2.2,” as well as competitive funding from the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology. In addition, this work received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme under the grant agreement number 607232 (THINFACE), from the Austrian Science Fund (FWF), grant I2081-N20, and finally from the German Research Foundation (DFG) through the project MatWorldNet LE-747/44-1. We thank Professor Björn Lüssem and Dr Christian Körner for fruitful discussions. K.L. thanks the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR) for support.
dc.publisherSpringer Nature
dc.relation.urlhttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-03302-z
dc.rightsThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.titleElementary steps in electrical doping of organic semiconductors
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentKAUST Solar Center (KSC)
dc.contributor.departmentPhysical Sciences and Engineering (PSE) Division
dc.identifier.journalNature Communications
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDF
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Microbial and Molecular Systems, Centre for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, KU Leuven, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200F, Leuven, B-3001, , Belgium
dc.contributor.institutionDresden Integrated Center for Applied Physics and Photonic Materials, Technische Universität Dresden, Nöthnitzer Strasse 61, Dresden, 01187, , Germany
dc.contributor.institutionNAWI Graz, Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, Graz, 8010, , , Austria
dc.contributor.institutionInstituut voor Materiaalonderzoek, Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 1, Diepenbeek, 3590, , Belgium
kaust.personTietze, Max Lutz
refterms.dateFOA2018-06-14T04:19:43Z


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This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.