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dc.contributor.authorManfreda, Salvatore
dc.contributor.authorMcCabe, Matthew
dc.contributor.authorMiller, Pauline
dc.contributor.authorLucas, Richard
dc.contributor.authorPajuelo Madrigal, Victor
dc.contributor.authorMallinis, Giorgos
dc.contributor.authorBen Dor, Eyal
dc.contributor.authorHelman, David
dc.contributor.authorEstes, Lyndon
dc.contributor.authorCiraolo, Giuseppe
dc.contributor.authorMüllerová, Jana
dc.contributor.authorTauro, Flavia
dc.contributor.authorde Lima, M.
dc.contributor.authorde Lima, João
dc.contributor.authorMaltese, Antonino
dc.contributor.authorFrances, Felix
dc.contributor.authorCaylor, Kelly
dc.contributor.authorKohv, Marko
dc.contributor.authorPerks, Matthew
dc.contributor.authorRuiz-Pérez, Guiomar
dc.contributor.authorSu, Zhongbo
dc.contributor.authorVico, Giulia
dc.contributor.authorToth, Brigitta
dc.identifier.citationManfreda S, McCabe M, Miller P, Lucas R, Pajuelo Madrigal V, et al. (2018) On the Use of Unmanned Aerial Systems for Environmental Monitoring. Remote Sensing 10: 641. Available:
dc.description.abstractEnvironmental monitoring plays a central role in diagnosing climate and management impacts on natural and agricultural systems; enhancing the understanding of hydrological processes; optimizing the allocation and distribution of water resources; and assessing, forecasting, and even preventing natural disasters. Nowadays, most monitoring and data collection systems are based upon a combination of ground-based measurements, manned airborne sensors, and satellite observations. These data are utilized in describing both small- and large-scale processes, but have spatiotemporal constraints inherent to each respective collection system. Bridging the unique spatial and temporal divides that limit current monitoring platforms is key to improving our understanding of environmental systems. In this context, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have considerable potential to radically improve environmental monitoring. UAS-mounted sensors offer an extraordinary opportunity to bridge the existing gap between field observations and traditional air- and space-borne remote sensing, by providing high spatial detail over relatively large areas in a cost-effective way and an entirely new capacity for enhanced temporal retrieval. As well as showcasing recent advances in the field, there is also a need to identify and understand the potential limitations of UAS technology. For these platforms to reach their monitoring potential, a wide spectrum of unresolved issues and application-specific challenges require focused community attention. Indeed, to leverage the full potential of UAS-based approaches, sensing technologies, measurement protocols, postprocessing techniques, retrieval algorithms, and evaluation techniques need to be harmonized. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the existing research and applications of UAS in natural and agricultural ecosystem monitoring in order to identify future directions, applications, developments, and challenges.
dc.description.sponsorshipThe present work has been funded by the COST Action CA16219 “HARMONIOUS—Harmonization of UAS techniques for agricultural and natural ecosystems monitoring”. B. Tóth acknowledges financial support by the Hungarian National Research, Development and Innovation Office (NRDI) under grant KH124765. J. Müllerová was supported by projects GA17-13998S and RVO67985939. Isabel and João de Lima were supported by project HIRT (PTDC/ECM-HID/4259/2014—POCI-01-0145-FEDER016668). We would like to thank reviewers for their insightful comments on the paper, as these comments led us to an improvement of the work.
dc.publisherMDPI AG
dc.rightsThis article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
dc.subjectEnvironmental monitoring
dc.subjectPrecision agriculture
dc.subjectRemote sensing
dc.subjectRiver monitoring
dc.subjectSoil moisture
dc.subjectVegetation indices
dc.titleOn the Use of Unmanned Aerial Systems for Environmental Monitoring
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentEnvironmental Science and Engineering Program
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)
dc.identifier.journalRemote Sensing
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDF
dc.contributor.institutionDipartimento delle Culture Europee e del Mediterraneo: Architettura, Ambiente, Patrimoni Culturali (DiCEM), Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Matera, 75100, , Italy
dc.contributor.institutionThe James Hutton Institute, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH, , United Kingdom
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, SY23 3DB, , United Kingdom
dc.contributor.institutionSvarmi ehf., árleyni 22, Reykjavík, 112, , Iceland
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Forestry and Management of the Environment and Natural Resources, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi, 67100, , Greece
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Geography and Human Environment, Tel Aviv University (TAU), Tel Aviv, 6997801, , Israel
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Geography and the Environment, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, 52900, , Israel
dc.contributor.institutionGraduate School of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, MA, 01610, , United States
dc.contributor.institutionDipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, Aerospaziale, dei Materiali, University of Palermo, Palermo, 90128, , Italy
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Botany, The Czech Acad. Sciences, Průhonice, 252 43, , , Czech Republic
dc.contributor.institutionCentro per l'Innovazione Tecnologica e lo Sviluppo del Territorio (CINTEST), Università degli Studi della Tuscia, Viterbo, 01100, , Italy
dc.contributor.institutionMarine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, 3000-370, , , Portugal
dc.contributor.institutionResearch Group of Hydrological and Environmental Modelling (GIHMA), Research Institute ofWater and Environmental Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, València, 46022, , Spain
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106-3060, , United States
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Geology, University of Tartu, Tartu, 50090, , Estonia
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Geography, Politics and Sociology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, , United Kingdom
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, 750 07, , Sweden
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Water Resources in Faculty of Geo-Information and Earth Observation, University of Twente, Enschede, 7522 NB, , Netherlands
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Crop Production and Soil Science, University of Pannonia, Keszthely, 8360, , Hungary
dc.contributor.institutionInstitute for Soil Sciences and Agricultural Chemistry, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, H-1022, , , Hungary
kaust.personMcCabe, Matthew

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