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dc.contributor.authorSun, Haiding
dc.contributor.authorLi, Kuang-Hui
dc.contributor.authorCastanedo, C. G. Torres
dc.contributor.authorOkur, Serdal
dc.contributor.authorTompa, Gary S.
dc.contributor.authorSalagaj, Tom
dc.contributor.authorLopatin, Sergei
dc.contributor.authorGenovese, Alessandro
dc.contributor.authorLi, Xiaohang
dc.date.accessioned2018-03-15T09:10:56Z
dc.date.available2018-03-15T09:10:56Z
dc.date.issued2018-03-06
dc.identifier.citationSun H, Li K-H, Castanedo CGT, Okur S, Tompa GS, et al. (2018) HCl Flow-Induced Phase Change of α-, β-, and ε-Ga2O3 Films Grown by MOCVD. Crystal Growth & Design. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.cgd.7b01791.
dc.identifier.issn1528-7483
dc.identifier.issn1528-7505
dc.identifier.doi10.1021/acs.cgd.7b01791
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/627313
dc.description.abstractPrecise control of the heteroepitaxy on a low-cost foreign substrate is often the key to drive the success of fabricating semiconductor devices in scale when a large low-cost native substrate is not available. Here, we successfully synthesized three different phases of Ga2O3 (α, β, and ε) films on c-plane sapphire by only tuning the flow rate of HCl along with other precursors in an MOCVD reactor. A 3-fold increase in the growth rate of pure β-Ga2O3 was achieved by introducing only 5 sccm of HCl flow. With continuously increased HCl flow, a mixture of β- and ε-Ga2O3 was observed, until the Ga2O3 film transformed completely to a pure ε-Ga2O3 with a smooth surface and the highest growth rate (∼1 μm/h) at a flow rate of 30 sccm. At 60 sccm, we found that the film tended to have a mixture of α- and ε-Ga2O3 with a dominant α-Ga2O3, while the growth rate dropped significantly (∼0.4 μm/h). The film became rough as a result of the mixture phases since the growth rate of ε-Ga2O3 is much higher than that of α-Ga2O3. In this HCl-enhanced MOCVD mode, the Cl impurity concentration was almost identical among the investigated samples. On the basis of our density functional theory calculation, we found that the relative energy between β-, ε-, and α-Ga2O3 became smaller, thus inducing the phase change by increasing the HCl flow in the reactor. Thus, it is plausible that the HCl acted as a catalyst during the phase transformation process. Furthermore, we revealed the microstructure and the epitaxial relationship between Ga2O3 with different phases and the c-plane sapphire substrates. Our HCl-enhanced MOCVD approach paves the way to achieving highly controllable heteroepitaxy of Ga2O3 films with different phases for device applications.
dc.description.sponsorshipThe KAUST authors would like to acknowledge the support of Baseline No. BAS/1/1664-01-01, and Equipment No. BAS/1/1664-01-07.
dc.publisherAmerican Chemical Society (ACS)
dc.relation.urlhttps://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.cgd.7b01791
dc.rightsThis document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Crystal Growth & Design, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.cgd.7b01791.
dc.titleHCl Flow-Induced Phase Change of α-, β-, and ε-Ga2O3 Films Grown by MOCVD
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentAdvanced Semiconductor Laboratory
dc.contributor.departmentComputer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering (CEMSE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentElectrical Engineering Program
dc.contributor.departmentElectron Microscopy
dc.contributor.departmentImaging and Characterization Core Lab
dc.contributor.departmentMaterial Science and Engineering Program
dc.contributor.departmentPhysical Science and Engineering (PSE) Division
dc.identifier.journalCrystal Growth & Design
dc.eprint.versionPost-print
dc.contributor.institutionStructured Materials Industries, Inc., Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, United States
kaust.personSun, Haiding
kaust.personLi, Kuang-Hui
kaust.personCastanedo, C. G. Torres
kaust.personLopatin, Sergei
kaust.personGenovese, Alessandro
kaust.personLi, Xiaohang
kaust.grant.numberBAS/1/1664-01-01
kaust.grant.numberBAS/1/1664-01-07
refterms.dateFOA2019-03-06T00:00:00Z
dc.date.published-online2018-03-06
dc.date.published-print2018-04-04


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