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dc.contributor.authorHong, Pei-Ying*
dc.contributor.authorJulian, Timothy*
dc.contributor.authorPype, Marie-Laure*
dc.contributor.authorJiang, Sunny*
dc.contributor.authorNelson, Kara*
dc.contributor.authorGraham, David*
dc.contributor.authorPruden, Amy*
dc.contributor.authorManaia, Célia*
dc.date.accessioned2018-03-06T06:50:09Z
dc.date.available2018-03-06T06:50:09Z
dc.date.issued2018-02-27en
dc.identifier.citationHong P-Y, Julian T, Pype M-L, Jiang S, Nelson K, et al. (2018) Reusing Treated Wastewater: Consideration of the Safety Aspects Associated with Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria and Antibiotic Resistance Genes. Water 10: 244. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/w10030244.en
dc.identifier.issn2073-4441en
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/w10030244en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/627230
dc.description.abstractAs more countries engage in water reuse, either intended or de facto, there is an urgent need to more comprehensively evaluate resulting environmental and public health concerns. While antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are increasingly coming under the spotlight, as emerging contaminants, existing water reuse regulations and guidelines do not adequately address these concerns. This perspectives paper seeks to frame the various challenges that need to be resolved to identify meaningful and realistic target types and levels of antibiotic resistance benchmarks for water reuse. First, there is the need for standardized and agreed-upon methodologies to identify and quantify ARB and ARGs. Second, even if methodologies are available, identifying which ARB and ARGs to monitor that would best relate to the occurrence of disease burden remains unknown. Third, a framework tailored to assessing the risks associated with ARB and ARGs during reuse is urgently needed. Fourth, similar to protecting drinking water sources, strategies to prevent dissemination of ARB and ARGs via wastewater treatment and reuse are required to ensure that appropriate barriers are emplaced. Finally, current wastewater treatment technologies could benefit from modification or retrofit to more effectively remove ARB and ARGs while also producing a high quality product for water and resource recovery. This perspectives paper highlights the need to consider ARB and ARGs when evaluating the overall safety aspects of water reuse and ways by which this may be accomplished.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThis paper was conceived at the KAUST Research Conference “Changing paradigms of wastewater treatment—from waste to resource” held on 27–29 March 2017. The conference was sponsored by KAUST Office of Sponsored Research (OSR) and was organized by Water Desalination and Reuse Center (WDRC).en
dc.publisherMDPI AGen
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/10/3/244en
dc.rightsThis is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).en
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
dc.subjectwater reuseen
dc.subjectwastewater treatmenten
dc.subjectsource preventionen
dc.subjectmonitoring and surveillanceen
dc.subjectrisk assessmenten
dc.titleReusing Treated Wastewater: Consideration of the Safety Aspects Associated with Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria and Antibiotic Resistance Genesen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division*
dc.contributor.departmentEnvironmental Science and Engineering Program*
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)*
dc.identifier.journalWateren
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel, Switzerland*
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland*
dc.contributor.institutionEawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, CH-8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland*
dc.contributor.institutionAdvanced Water Management Centre, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia*
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA*
dc.contributor.institutionEngineering Research Center for Re-Inventing the Nation’s Urban Water Infrastructure (ReNUWIt), Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA*
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK*
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA*
dc.contributor.institutionCBQF—Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina—Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Rua Arquiteto Lobão Vital, Apartado 2511, 4202-401 Porto, Portugal*
kaust.authorHong, Pei-Ying*
refterms.dateFOA2018-06-13T18:17:09Z


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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).