Electrochemical activation, voltage decay and hysteresis of Li-rich layered cathode probed by various cobalt content

Abstract
The high capacity of Li-rich layered cathode materials have attracted great attention for the greater energy density lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries, but the understanding of knowledge associated with electrochemical behaviours are still needed to improve their performances further. In this study, different amount of Co content is designed in Li-rich layered compounds (0.5Li2MnO3·0.5LiMn0.5-xNi0.5-xCo2xO2, 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2), and the stepwise electrochemical activation process is applied to explore the features. We discover that the substitution of Co3+ ions can accelerate the electrochemical activation of Li2MnO3 component, and the Co-doped compound delivers much higher capacities even they suffer an apparent voltage decay comparing to the Co-free one. Besides, a fast metal ions migration exists (e.g., from the metastable tetrahedral site to the lower energy cubic site) in initial dozens of cycles (e.g., 30 cycles at 0.1C); thereafter, they likely return to the original octahedral site, as demonstrated in the voltage decay and hysteresis analysis.

Citation
Wu Y, Xie L, He X, Zhuo L, Wang L, et al. (2018) Electrochemical activation, voltage decay and hysteresis of Li-rich layered cathode probed by various cobalt content. Electrochimica Acta. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2018.01.181.

Acknowledgements
The research was supported by the State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilizations, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, and Shandong Province Science and Technology Program (2014GGX102020). J. Ming is grateful for the support from the King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (KAUST).

Publisher
Elsevier BV

Journal
Electrochimica Acta

DOI
10.1016/j.electacta.2018.01.181

Additional Links
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013468618302287

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