Spin-orbit coupling in inversion-asymmetric magnetic crystals and structures has emerged as a powerful tool to generate complex magnetic textures, interconvert charge and spin under applied current, and control magnetization dynamics. Current-induced spin-orbit torques mediate the transfer of angular momentum from the lattice to the spin system, leading to sustained magnetic oscillations or switching of ferromagnetic as well as antiferromagnetic structures. The manipulation of magnetic order, domain walls, and skyrmions by spin-orbit torques provides evidence of the microscopic interactions between charge and spin in a variety of materials and opens novel strategies to design spintronic devices with potentially high impact in data storage, nonvolatile logic, and magnonic applications. This paper reviews recent progress in the field of spin orbitronics, focusing on theoretical models, material properties, and experimental results obtained on bulk noncentrosymmetric conductors and multilayer heterostructures, including metals, semiconductors, and topological insulator systems. Relevant aspects for improving the understanding and optimizing the efficiency of nonequilibrium spin-orbit phenomena in future nanoscale devices are also discussed.
Manchon, A., Železný, J., Miron, I. M., Jungwirth, T., Sinova, J., Thiaville, A., … Gambardella, P. (2019). Current-induced spin-orbit torques in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic systems. Reviews of Modern Physics, 91(3). doi:10.1103/revmodphys.91.035004
A. M. was supported by the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). T. J. acknowledges support from the EU FET Open RIA Grant No. 766566, the Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic Grant No. LM2015087 and LNSM-LNSpin, and the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic Grant No. 19-28375X. J. S. acknowledges the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, EU FET Open Grant No. 766566, EU ERC Synergy Grant No. 610115, and the Transregional Collaborative Research Center (SFB/TRR) 173 SPIN+X. K. G. and P. G. acknowledge stimulating discussions with C. O. Avci and financial support by the Swiss National Science Foundation (Grants No. 200021-153404 and No. 200020-172775) and the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Program (spOt project, Grant No. 318144). A. T. acknowledges support by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche, Project No. ANR-17-CE24-0025 (TopSky). J. Ž. acknowledges the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic Grant No. 19-18623Y and support from the Institute of Physics of the Czech Academy of Sciences and the Max Planck Society through the Max Planck Partner Group programme.