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dc.contributor.authorCasu, Alberto
dc.contributor.authorLamberti, Andrea
dc.contributor.authorStassi, Stefano
dc.contributor.authorFalqui, Andrea
dc.date.accessioned2018-01-28T07:01:36Z
dc.date.available2018-01-28T07:01:36Z
dc.date.issued2018-01-15
dc.identifier.citationCasu A, Lamberti A, Stassi S, Falqui A (2018) Crystallization of TiO2 Nanotubes by In Situ Heating TEM. Nanomaterials 8: 40. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano8010040.
dc.identifier.issn2079-4991
dc.identifier.pmid29342894
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/nano8010040
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/626853
dc.description.abstractThe thermally-induced crystallization of anodically grown TiO2 amorphous nanotubes has been studied so far under ambient pressure conditions by techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry and in situ X-ray diffraction, then looking at the overall response of several thousands of nanotubes in a carpet arrangement. Here we report a study of this phenomenon based on an in situ transmission electron microscopy approach that uses a twofold strategy. First, a group of some tens of TiO2 amorphous nanotubes was heated looking at their electron diffraction pattern change versus temperature, in order to determine both the initial temperature of crystallization and the corresponding crystalline phases. Second, the experiment was repeated on groups of few nanotubes, imaging their structural evolution in the direct space by spherical aberration-corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy. These studies showed that, differently from what happens under ambient pressure conditions, under the microscope’s high vacuum (p < 10−5 Pa) the crystallization of TiO2 amorphous nanotubes starts from local small seeds of rutile and brookite, which then grow up with the increasing temperature. Besides, the crystallization started at different temperatures, namely 450 and 380 °C, when the in situ heating was performed irradiating the sample with electron beam energy of 120 or 300 keV, respectively. This difference is due to atomic knock-on effects induced by the electron beam with diverse energy.
dc.description.sponsorshipThe authors acknowledge financial support from the KAUST baseline funding of Andrea Falqui.
dc.publisherMDPI AG
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.mdpi.com/2079-4991/8/1/40
dc.rightsThis is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subjectTiO2 amorphous nanotubes
dc.subjecthigh resolution transmission electron microscopy
dc.subjectin situ transmission electron microscopy
dc.subjectamorphous-crystalline phase transition
dc.subjectelectron beam effects
dc.subjectanodic oxidation
dc.titleCrystallization of TiO2 Nanotubes by In Situ Heating TEM
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentBioscience Program
dc.identifier.journalNanomaterials
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDF
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy
kaust.personCasu, Alberto
kaust.personFalqui, Andrea
refterms.dateFOA2018-06-14T05:47:00Z


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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).