Hydrogen at the Rooftop: Compact CPV-Hydrogen system to Convert Sunlight to Hydrogen
KAUST DepartmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
Environmental Science and Engineering Program
Water Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)
Online Publication Date2017-12-27
Print Publication Date2018-03
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/626742
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AbstractDespite being highest potential energy source, solar intermittency and low power density make it difficult for solar energy to compete with the conventional power plants. Highly efficient concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system provides best technology to be paired with the electrolytic hydrogen production, as a sustainable energy source with long term energy storage. However, the conventional gigantic design of CPV system limits its market and application to the open desert fields without any rooftop installation scope, unlike conventional PV. This makes CPV less popular among solar energy customers. This paper discusses the development of compact CPV-Hydrogen system for the rooftop application in the urban region. The in-house built compact CPV system works with hybrid solar tracking of 0.1° accuracy, ensured through proposed double lens collimator based solar tracking sensor. With PEM based electrolyser, the compact CPV-hydrogen system showed 28% CPV efficiency and 18% sunlight to hydrogen (STH) efficiency, for rooftop operation in tropical region of Singapore. For plant designers, the solar to hydrogen production rating of 217 kWh/kg has been presented with 15% STH daily average efficiency, recorded from the long term field operation of the system.
CitationBurhan M, Shahzad MW, Ng KC (2018) Hydrogen at the rooftop: Compact CPV-hydrogen system to convert sunlight to hydrogen. Applied Thermal Engineering 132: 154–164. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2017.12.094.
SponsorsThis research was supported by the International Research Scholarship of Mechanical Engineering Department, National University of Singapore and collaborated with King Abdullah University of Science and Technology.
JournalApplied Thermal Engineering
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Sunlight to hydrogen conversion: Design optimization and energy management of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV-Hydrogen) system using micro genetic algorithmBurhan, Muhammad; Chua, Kian Jon Ernest; Ng, Kim Choon (Energy, Elsevier BV, 2016-02-14) [Article]Owing to the intermittent solar irradiance from cloud cover in the diurnal period and unavailability at night time, the practical design of a solar system requires energy backup storage for an uninterrupted supply or for off-grid operation. However, for highly efficient CPV (concentrated photovoltaic) system, the literature is lacking for energy management and optimization algorithm and tool for standalone operation. In this paper, a system with CPV and electrolyser is presented where beam irradiance of sunlight is harnessed to convert the instantaneously generated electricity into useful Hydrogen/Oxygen gas, where they can be stored and re-used for downstream applications such as the fuel cells, etc. The multi-variable design and multi-objective optimization strategies are proposed and presented for a standalone operation of the CPV-Hydrogen system as well as their system performances, particularly electrical rating of CPV based upon the real weather data of Singapore. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
Solar to hydrogen: Compact and cost effective CPV field for rooftop operation and hydrogen productionBurhan, Muhammad; Oh, Seung Jin; Chua, Kian Jon Ernest; Ng, Kim Choon (Applied Energy, Elsevier BV, 2016-11-25) [Article]Current commercial CPV systems are designed as large units which are targeted to be installed in open desert fields with high DNI availability. It appeared that the CPV is among some of those technologies which gained very little attention of people, with less customers and market. For conventional PV systems, the installations at the rooftop of commercial and residential buildings have a significant share in the total installed capacity of PV systems. That is why for most of the countries, the PV installations at the rooftop of commercial and residential buildings are aimed to be increased to half of total installed PV. On the other hand, there is no commercial CPV system available to be suitable for rooftop operation, giving motivation for the development of CPV field of compact systems. This paper discusses the development of a CPV field for the rooftop operation, comprising of compact CPV system with cost effective but highly accurate solar tracking sensor and wireless master slave control. In addition, the performance of the developed CPV systems is evaluated for production of hydrogen, which can be used as energy carrier or energy storage and a maximum solar to hydrogen efficiency of 18% is obtained. However, due to dynamic nature of the weather data and throughout the day variations in the performance of CPV and electrolyser, the solar to hydrogen performance is proposed to be reported as daily and long term average efficiency. The CPV-Hydrogen system showed daily average conversion efficiency of 15%, with solar to hydrogen production rate of 218 kW h/kg.
Fe(III)-functionalized carbon dots—Highly efficient photoluminescence redox catalyst for hydrogenations of olefins and decomposition of hydrogen peroxideBourlinos, Athanasios B.; Rathi, Anuj K.; Gawande, Manoj B.; Hola, Katerina; Goswami, Anandarup; Kalytchuk, Sergii; Karakassides, Michael A.; Kouloumpis, Antonios; Gournis, Dimitrios; Deligiannakis, Yannis; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Zboril, Radek (Applied Materials Today, Elsevier BV, 2017-03-21) [Article]We present the first bottom-up approach to synthesize Fe(III)-functionalized carbon dots (CDs) from molecular precursors without the need of conventional thermal or microwave treatment and additional reagents. Specifically, sonication of xylene in the presence of anhydrous FeCl3 results in oxidative coupling of the aromatic substrate towards Fe(III)-functionalized CDs. The as-prepared CDs are spherical in shape with a size of 3–8 nm, highly dispersible in organic solvents and display wavelength-dependent photoluminescence (PL). The iron ions attached to the surface endow the CDs with superior catalytic activity for olefin hydrogenation with excellent conversion and selectivity (up to 100%). The Fe(III)-CDs are more effective in the hydrogenation of a series of electron donating or withdrawing olefin substrates compared to conventional homogeneous or heterogeneous Fe(III)-based catalysts. The as-prepared heterogeneous nanocatalyst can be used repeatedly without any loss of catalytic activity. Importantly, the stability of the new catalysts can be easily monitored by PL intensity or quantum yield measurements, which certainly opens the doors for real time monitoring in a range of applications. Additionally, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time, the oxidative property of Fe-CDs was also explored in decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in water with the first order rate constant of 0.7 × 10−2 min−1, proving the versatile catalytic properties of such hybrid systems.