Sensing System for Salinity Testing Using Laser-induced Graphene Sensors
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AbstractThe paper presents the development and implementation of a low-cost salinity sensing system. Commercial polymer films were laser ablated at specific conditions to form graphene-based sensors on flexible Kapton substrates. Sodium chloride was considered as the primary constituent for testing due to its prominent presence in water bodies. The sensor was characterized by testing different concentrations of sodium chloride. A standard curve was developed to perform real-time testing with a sample taken from sea water of unknown concentration. The sensitivity and resolution of these graphene sensors for the experimental solutions were 1.07Ω/ppm and 1ppm respectively. The developed system was validated by testing it with a real sample and cross checking it on the calibration curve. The signal conditioning circuit was further enhanced by embedding a microcontroller to the designed system. The obtained results did provide a platform for implementation of a low-cost salinity sensing system that could be used in marine applications.
CitationNag A, Mukhopadhyay SC, Kosel J (2017) Sensing system for salinity testing using laser-induced graphene sensors. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 264: 107–116. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2017.08.008.
SponsorsThe authors would like to thank King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia, for providing the conditions to test the sensor patch and facilities for fabrication of the electrodes respectively. They would also thank the Macquarie University, Australia for providing the conditions to perform experiments with the developed sensor patches.