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dc.contributor.authorMayol, Eva
dc.contributor.authorArrieta, J M
dc.contributor.authorJiménez, Maria A.
dc.contributor.authorMartínez-Asensio, Adrián
dc.contributor.authorGarcias-Bonet, Neus
dc.contributor.authorDachs, Jordi
dc.contributor.authorGonzález-Gaya, Belén
dc.contributor.authorRoyer, Sarah-J.
dc.contributor.authorBenítez-Barrios, Verónica M.
dc.contributor.authorFraile-Nuez, Eugenio
dc.contributor.authorDuarte, Carlos M.
dc.date.accessioned2017-08-14T06:41:38Z
dc.date.available2017-08-14T06:41:38Z
dc.date.issued2017-08-04
dc.identifier.citationMayol E, Arrieta JM, Jiménez MA, Martínez-Asensio A, Garcias-Bonet N, et al. (2017) Long-range transport of airborne microbes over the global tropical and subtropical ocean. Nature Communications 8. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-00110-9.
dc.identifier.issn2041-1723
dc.identifier.pmid28779070
dc.identifier.doi10.1038/s41467-017-00110-9
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/625340
dc.description.abstractThe atmosphere plays a fundamental role in the transport of microbes across the planet but it is often neglected as a microbial habitat. Although the ocean represents two thirds of the Earth's surface, there is little information on the atmospheric microbial load over the open ocean. Here we provide a global estimate of microbial loads and air-sea exchanges over the tropical and subtropical oceans based on the data collected along the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition. Total loads of airborne prokaryotes and eukaryotes were estimated at 2.2 × 1021 and 2.1 × 1021 cells, respectively. Overall 33-68% of these microorganisms could be traced to a marine origin, being transported thousands of kilometres before re-entering the ocean. Moreover, our results show a substantial load of terrestrial microbes transported over the oceans, with abundances declining exponentially with distance from land and indicate that islands may act as stepping stones facilitating the transoceanic transport of terrestrial microbes.The extent to which the ocean acts as a sink and source of airborne particles to the atmosphere is unresolved. Here, the authors report high microbial loads over the tropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans and propose islands as stepping stones for the transoceanic transport of terrestrial microbes..
dc.description.sponsorshipThis is a contribution to the Malaspina Expedition 2010, funded by the INGENIO 2010 CONSOLIDER program (ref. CDS2008-00077) of the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. We thank the crew of R/V Hespérides for their invaluable support and for providing the chlorophyll data, J. Baldrich Justel for his help with processing samples and the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) for the provision of the HYSPLIT model (http://www.ready.noaa.gov) used in this publication. E.M. and M.A.J. acknowledge the ‘Junta para la Ampliación de Estudios’ program (JAE-predoc and JAE-doc contracts, respectively) from CSIC, supplied by the European Social Fund. A.M.-A. acknowledges an FPI grant funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation. B.G.-G. acknowledges a predoctoral fellowship from the BBVA Foundation. We thank the Boundary-Layer Height data and the NCEP atmospheric reanalysis provided by the NOAA-ESRL Physical Sciences Division, Boulder, Colorado from their Web site at http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/. Bathymetry was obtained from the GEBCO Digital Atlas published by the British Oceanographic Data Centre, on behalf of IOC and IHO, 2003.
dc.publisherSpringer Nature
dc.relation.urlhttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-017-00110-9
dc.rightsThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.titleLong-range transport of airborne microbes over the global tropical and subtropical ocean
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentMarine Science Program
dc.contributor.departmentRed Sea Research Center (RSRC)
dc.identifier.journalNature Communications
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDF
dc.contributor.institutionInstitute of Littoral, Environment and Societies (LIENSs), National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) - University of La Rochelle, La Rochelle, France. eva.mayol@univ-lr.fr.
dc.contributor.institutionSpanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO), Oceanographic Center of The Canary Islands, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, 38180, Spain.
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Physics, University of the Balearic Islands (UIB), Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research - Spanish Council for Scientific Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry - Spanish Council for Scientific Research (IQOG-CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
dc.contributor.institutionDaniel K. Inouye Center for Microbial Oceanography, Research and Education, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, USA.
dc.contributor.institutionOCEOMIC, Marine Bio and Technology S.L., Fuerteventura Technology Park, Puerto del Rosario, E35600, Spain.
kaust.personGarcias-Bonet, Neus
kaust.personDuarte, Carlos M.
refterms.dateFOA2018-06-13T13:25:16Z
dc.date.published-online2017-08-04
dc.date.published-print2017-12


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This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.