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dc.contributor.authorKlein, Shannon
dc.contributor.authorPitt, Kylie A.
dc.contributor.authorNitschke, Matthew R.
dc.contributor.authorGoyen, Samantha
dc.contributor.authorWelsh, David T.
dc.contributor.authorSuggett, David J.
dc.contributor.authorCarroll, Anthony R.
dc.date.accessioned2017-06-14T12:17:35Z
dc.date.available2017-06-14T12:17:35Z
dc.date.issued2017-04-08
dc.identifier.citationKlein SG, Pitt KA, Nitschke MR, Goyen S, Welsh DT, et al. (2017) Symbiodinium mitigate the combined effects of hypoxia and acidification on a noncalcifying cnidarian. Global Change Biology. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13718.
dc.identifier.issn1354-1013
dc.identifier.doi10.1111/gcb.13718
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/625027
dc.description.abstractAnthropogenic nutrient inputs enhance microbial respiration within many coastal ecosystems, driving concurrent hypoxia and acidification. During photosynthesis, Symbiodinium spp., the microalgal endosymbionts of cnidarians and other marine phyla, produce O and assimilate CO and thus potentially mitigate the exposure of the host to these stresses. However, such a role for Symbiodinium remains untested for noncalcifying cnidarians. We therefore contrasted the fitness of symbiotic and aposymbiotic polyps of a model host jellyfish (Cassiopea sp.) under reduced O (~2.09 mg/L) and pH (~ 7.63) scenarios in a full-factorial experiment. Host fitness was characterized as asexual reproduction and their ability to regulate internal pH and Symbiodinium performance characterized by maximum photochemical efficiency, chla content and cell density. Acidification alone resulted in 58% more asexual reproduction of symbiotic polyps than aposymbiotic polyps (and enhanced Symbiodinium cell density) suggesting Cassiopea sp. fitness was enhanced by CO-stimulated Symbiodinium photosynthetic activity. Indeed, greater CO drawdown (elevated pH) was observed within host tissues of symbiotic polyps under acidification regardless of O conditions. Hypoxia alone produced 22% fewer polyps than ambient conditions regardless of acidification and symbiont status, suggesting Symbiodinium photosynthetic activity did not mitigate its effects. Combined hypoxia and acidification, however, produced similar numbers of symbiotic polyps compared with aposymbiotic kept under ambient conditions, demonstrating that the presence of Symbiodinium was key for mitigating the combined effects of hypoxia and acidification on asexual reproduction. We hypothesize that this mitigation occurred because of reduced photorespiration under elevated CO conditions where increased net O production ameliorates oxygen debt. We show that Symbiodinium play an important role in facilitating enhanced fitness of Cassiopea sp. polyps, and perhaps also other noncalcifying cnidarian hosts, to the ubiquitous effects of ocean acidification. Importantly we highlight that symbiotic, noncalcifying cnidarians may be particularly advantaged in productive coastal waters that are subject to simultaneous hypoxia and acidification.
dc.description.sponsorshipFunding for this study was provided by Griffith University and an Australian Post-Graduate Award to S.G.K. The contribution of D.J.S. and M.R.N. to this work was supported through an Australian Research Council (ARC) Discovery Grant DP160100271. We thank W. Bennett, F. Leusch and D. Tonzing for technical assistance and J. Arthur and J. Hay for statistical advice. We also thank A. Reno and K. Wilson from Underwater World, Sunshine Coast, Australia, for cultures of Cassiopea sp. polyps.
dc.publisherWiley
dc.relation.urlhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13718/full
dc.relation.urlhttps://rss.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/am-pdf/10.1111/gcb.13718
dc.rightsThis is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Symbiodinium mitigate the combined effects of hypoxia and acidification on a noncalcifying cnidarian, which has been published in final form at http://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13718. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance With Wiley Terms and Conditions for self-archiving.
dc.rightsThis file is an open access version redistributed from: https://rss.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/am-pdf/10.1111/gcb.13718
dc.subjectAsexual reproduction
dc.subjectCassiopea sp.
dc.subjectElevated pCO2
dc.subjectJellyfish
dc.subjectLow DO
dc.subjectLow pH
dc.subjectPhotosynthesis
dc.subjectSymbionts
dc.subjectZooxanthellae
dc.titleSymbiodinium mitigate the combined effects of hypoxia and acidification on a noncalcifying cnidarian
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentRed Sea Research Center (RSRC)
dc.identifier.journalGlobal Change Biology
dc.rights.embargodate2018-04-08
dc.eprint.versionPost-print
dc.contributor.institutionAustralian Rivers Institute - Coasts and Estuaries; Griffith School of Environment; Griffith University; Gold Coast Qld Australia
dc.contributor.institutionClimate Change Cluster (C3); University of Technology Sydney; Sydney NSW Australia
dc.contributor.institutionEnvironmental Futures Research Institute; Griffith School of Environment; Griffith University; Gold Coast Qld Australia
kaust.personKlein, Shannon
refterms.dateFOA2020-09-22T13:23:26Z
dc.date.published-online2017-05-18
dc.date.published-print2017-09


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