Recent Submissions

  • Rebuilding Coral Reefs: A Decadal Grand Challenge

    Knowlton, Nancy; Corcoran, Emily; Felis, Thomas; Ferse, Sebastian; de Goeij, Jasper; Grottoli, Andréa; Harding, Simon; Kleypas, Joan; Mayfield, Anderson; Miller, Margaret; Obura, David; Osuka, Kennedy; Peixoto, Raquel S; Randall, Carly; Voolstra, Christian; Wells, Sue; Wild, Christian (International Coral Reef Society and Future Earth Coasts, 2021-07-15) [Report]
    This document is the work of a team assembled by the International Coral Reef Society (ICRS). The mission of ICRS is to promote the acquisition and dissemination of scientific knowledge to secure the future of coral reefs, including via relevant policy frameworks and decision-making processes. This document seeks to highlight the urgency of taking action to conserve and restore reefs through protection and management measures, to provide a summary of the most relevant and recent natural and social science that provides guidance on these tasks, and to highlight implications of these findings for the numerous discussions and negotiations taking place at the global level.
  • Catalytic and Noncatalytic Upgrading of Oils

    (American Chemical Society, 2021-04-29) [Book]
  • Advances in Air Conditioning Technologies

    Chua, Kian Jon; Islam, Md Raisul; Ng, Kim Choon; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil (Springer Nature, 2021) [Book]
    This book highlights key recent developments in air conditioning technologies for cooling and dehumidification with the specific objectives to improve energy efficiency and to minimize environmental impact. Today, air conditioning, comprising cooling and dehumidification, is a necessity in commercial and residential buildings and even in many industrial processes. This book provides key update on recent developments in air conditioning systems, cooling cycles and innovative cooling/dehumidification technologies. Key technologies related to cooling include heat-driven absorption and adsorption cooling and water-based dew point evaporative cooling. Technologies connected with dehumidification involve new generations of adsorbent–desiccant dehumidifiers, liquid-based desiccants and membranes that sieve out water vapor from air. Losses in cooling cycles and thermo-economic analysis for a sustainable economy are also judiciously documented.
  • Statistical Process Monitoring Using Advanced Data-Driven and Deep Learning Approaches

    Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying; Hering, Amanda; Madakyaru, Muddu; Dairi, Abdelkader (Elsevier BV, 2021) [Book]
    Statistical Process Monitoring Using Advanced Data-Driven and Deep Learning Approaches tackles multivariate challenges in process monitoring by merging the advantages of univariate and traditional multivariate techniques to enhance their performance and widen their practical applicability. The book proceeds with merging the desirable properties of shallow learning approaches – such as a one-class support vector machine and k-nearest neighbours and unsupervised deep learning approaches – to develop more sophisticated and efficient monitoring techniques. Finally, the developed approaches are applied to monitor many processes, such as waste-water treatment plants, detection of obstacles in driving environments for autonomous robots and vehicles, robot swarm, chemical processes (continuous stirred tank reactor, plug flow rector, and distillation columns), ozone pollution, road traffic congestion, and solar photovoltaic systems.
  • Dynamic Programming Multi-Objective Combinatorial Optimization

    Mankowski, Michal; Moshkov, Mikhail (Springer Nature, 2021) [Book]
    This book introduces a fairly universal approach to the design and analysis of exact optimization algorithms for multi-objective combinatorial optimization problems. It proposes the circuits without repetitions representing the sets of feasible solutions along with the increasing and strictly increasing cost functions as a model for such problems. The book designs the algorithms for multi-stage and bi-criteria optimization and for counting the solutions in the framework of this model. As applications, this book studies eleven known combinatorial optimization problems: matrix chain multiplication, global sequence alignment, optimal paths in directed graphs, binary search trees, convex polygon triangulation, line breaking (text justification), one-dimensional clustering, optimal bitonic tour, segmented least squares, optimization of matchings in trees, and 0/1 knapsack problem. The results presented are useful for researchers in combinatorial optimization. This book is also useful as the basis for graduate courses.
  • Riemann Problems and Jupyter Solutions

    Ketcheson, David I.; LeVeque, Randall J.; del Razo, Mauricio J. (Society for Industrial & Applied Mathematics (SIAM), 2020-06-26) [Book]
    This book addresses an important class of mathematical problems—the Riemann problem—for first-order hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs), which arise when modeling wave propagation in applications such as fluid dynamics, traffic flow, acoustics, and elasticity. The solution of the Riemann problem captures essential information about these models and is the key ingredient in modern numerical methods for their solution. This book covers the fundamental ideas related to classical Riemann solutions, including their special structure and the types of waves that arise, as well as the ideas behind fast approximate solvers for the Riemann problem. The emphasis is on the general ideas, but each chapter delves into a particular application. Riemann Problems and Jupyter Solutions - is available in electronic form as a collection of Jupyter notebooks that contain executable computer code and interactive figures and animations, allowing readers to grasp how the concepts presented are affected by important parameters and to experiment by varying those parameters themselves; - is the only interactive book focused entirely on the Riemann problem; and - develops each concept in the context of a specific physical application, helping readers apply physical intuition in learning mathematical concepts. Graduate students and researchers working in the analysis and/or numerical solution of hyperbolic PDEs will find this book of interest. This includes mathematicians, as well as scientists and engineers, working with applications like fluid dynamics, water waves, traffic modeling, or electromagnetism. Educators interested in developing instructional materials using Jupyter notebooks will also find this book useful. The book is appropriate for courses in Numerical Methods for Hyperbolic PDEs and Analysis of Hyperbolic PDEs, and it can be a great supplement for courses in computational fluid dynamics, acoustics, and gas dynamics.
  • Comparative Analysis of Deterministic and Nondeterministic Decision Trees

    Moshkov, Mikhail (Springer Nature, 2020-03-13) [Book]
    This book compares four parameters of problems in arbitrary information systems: complexity of problem representation and complexity of deterministic, nondeterministic, and strongly nondeterministic decision trees for problem solving. Deterministic decision trees are widely used as classifiers, as a means of knowledge representation, and as algorithms. Nondeterministic (strongly nondeterministic) decision trees can be interpreted as systems of true decision rules that cover all objects (objects from one decision class). This book develops tools for the study of decision trees, including bounds on complexity and algorithms for construction of decision trees for decision tables with many-valued decisions. It considers two approaches to the investigation of decision trees for problems in information systems: local, when decision trees can use only attributes from the problem representation; and global, when decision trees can use arbitrary attributes from the information system. For both approaches, it describes all possible types of relationships among the four parameters considered and discusses the algorithmic problems related to decision tree optimization. The results presented are useful for researchers who apply decision trees and rules to algorithm design and to data analysis, especially those working in rough set theory, test theory and logical analysis of data. This book can also be used as the basis for graduate courses.
  • Reservoir Simulations: Machine Learning and Modeling

    Sun, Shuyu; Zhang, Tao (Elsevier BV, 2020) [Book]
    Reservoir Simulation: Machine Learning and Modeling helps the engineer step into the current and most popular advances in reservoir simulation, learning from current experiments and speeding up potential collaboration opportunities in research and technology. This reference explains common terminology, concepts, and equations through multiple figures and rigorous derivations, better preparing the engineer for the next step forward in a modeling project and avoid repeating existing progress. Well-designed exercises, case studies and numerical examples give the engineer a faster start on advancing their own cases. Both computational methods and engineering cases are explained, bridging the opportunities between computational science and petroleum engineering. This book delivers a critical reference for today’s petroleum and reservoir engineer to optimize more complex developments.
  • Artificially Intelligent Nanomaterials

    Wang, Peng; Chang, Jian; Zhang, Lianbin (Wiley, 2019-11-08) [Book]

    Tainter, Joseph A.; Patzek, Tadeusz (Aracne editrice, 2019-11) [Book]
    Un modello che coniuga semplicità ed eleganza, proponendoci uno strumento efficace per affrontare una problematica emergente, è quello che fa la differenza, che può guadagnarsi un proprio spazio nella storia delle idee. Quanto detto, può facilmente essere riferito alla potente immagine che sta al centro di questo volume: la spirale energia complessità. Questo ci sembra costituire un valido motivo per proporre un’edizione italiana del lavoro di Tainter e Patzek, pubblicato per la prima volta negli Stati Uniti nel 2012, ma che ha retto ed è destinato a reggere egregiamente l’impatto del tempo, a dispetto del carattere estremamente volatile di un complesso di tematiche connesse con il caso studio prescelto (l’incidente petrolifero occorso nel Golfo del Messico nell’aprile del 2010).
  • Sustainable nanoscale engineering: From materials design to chemical processing

    (Elsevier BV, 2019-10-18) [Book]
    Sustainable Nanoscale Engineering: From Materials Design to Chemical Processing presents the latest on the design of nanoscale materials and their applications in sustainable chemical production processes. The newest achievements of materials science, in particular nanomaterials, opened new opportunities for chemical engineers to design more efficient, safe, compact and environmentally benign processes. These materials include metal-organic frameworks, graphene, membranes, imprinted polymers, polymers of intrinsic microporosity, nanoparticles, and nanofilms, to name a few. Topics discussed include gas separation, CO2 sequestration, continuous processes, waste valorization, catalytic processes, bioengineering, pharmaceutical manufacturing, supercritical CO2 technology, sustainable energy, molecular imprinting, graphene, nature inspired chemical engineering, desalination, and more.
  • Marine Metagenomics

    (Springer Nature, 2019-07-24) [Book]
    This book presents the state-of-art marine metagenome research and explains the method of marine metagenomic analysis in an easy-to-understand manner. Changes in the marine environment due to global warming and pollution have become a major global problem. Maintaining a healthy marine ecosystem requires advanced environmental monitoring and assessment systems. As such, the book presents a novel metagenomic monitoring method, which has been developed for comprehensive analyses of the DNA of microorganisms living in seawater to further our understanding of the dynamics of the marine environment. The book can be used as a primer for new researchers and as a manual on experimental methods.
  • Decision and Inhibitory Trees and Rules for Decision Tables with Many-valued Decisions

    Alsolami, Fawaz; Azad, Mohammad; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail (Springer Nature, 2019-05-21) [Book]
    The results presented here (including the assessment of a new tool – inhibitory trees) offer valuable tools for researchers in the areas of data mining, knowledge discovery, and machine learning, especially those whose work involves decision tables with many-valued decisions. The authors consider various examples of problems and corresponding decision tables with many-valued decisions, discuss the difference between decision and inhibitory trees and rules, and develop tools for their analysis and design. Applications include the study of totally optimal (optimal in relation to a number of criteria simultaneously) decision and inhibitory trees and rules; the comparison of greedy heuristics for tree and rule construction as single-criterion and bi-criteria optimization algorithms; and the development of a restricted multi-pruning approach used in classification and knowledge representation.
  • Coral Reefs of the Red Sea

    (Springer Nature, 2019-05-07) [Book]
    This volume is a complete review and reference work for scientists, engineers, and students concerned with coral reefs in the Red Sea. It provides an up-to-date review on the geology, ecology, and physiology of coral reef ecosystems in the Red Sea, including data from most recent molecular studies. The Red Sea harbours a set of unique ecological characteristics, such as high temperature, high alkalinity, and high salinity, in a quasi-isolated environment. This makes it a perfect laboratory to study and understand adaptation in regard to the impact of climate change on marine ecosystems. This book can be used as a general reference, guide, or textbook.
  • Printed Flexible Sensors

    Nag, Anindya; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Kosel, Jürgen (Springer Nature, 2019) [Book]
    This book presents recent advances in the design, fabrication and implementation of flexible printed sensors. It explores a range of materials for developing the electrode and substrate parts of the sensors, on the basis of their electrical and mechanical characteristics. The sensors were processed using laser cutting and 3D printing techniques, and the sensors developed were employed in a number of healthcare, environmental and industrial applications, including: monitoring of physiological movements, respiration, salinity and nitrate measurement, and tactile sensing. The type of sensor selected for each application depended on its dimensions, robustness and sensitivity. The sensors fabricated were also embedded in an IoT-based system, allowing them to be integrated into real-time applications.
  • Advanced Nanoelectronics

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa (Wiley, 2018-12-17) [Book]
    Brings novel insights to a vibrant research area with high application potential - covering materials, physics, architecture, and integration aspects of future generation CMOS electronics technology.
  • A Survey on 3D Cameras: Metrological Comparison of Time-of-Flight, Structured-Light and Active Stereoscopy Technologies

    Giancola, Silvio; Valenti, Matteo; Sala, Remo (SpringerBriefs in Computer Science, Springer Nature, 2018-06-19) [Book]
    This book is a valuable resource to deeply understand the technology used in 3D cameras. In this book, the authors summarize and compare the specifications of the main 3D cameras available in the mass market. The authors present a deep metrological analysis of the main camera based on the three main technologies: Time-of-Flight, Structured-Light and Active Stereoscopy, and provide qualitative results for any user to understand the underlying technology within 3D camera, as well as practical guidance on how to get the most of them for a given application.
  • Extensions of dynamic programming for combinatorial optimization and data mining

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.; Amin, Talha M.; Chikalov, Igor; Hussain, Shahid; Moshkov, Mikhail (Springer Nature, 2018-05-22) [Book]
    Dynamic programming is an efficient technique for solving optimization problems. It is based on breaking the initial problem down into simpler ones and solving these sub-problems, beginning with the simplest ones. A conventional dynamic programming algorithm returns an optimal object from a given set of objects. This book develops extensions of dynamic programming, enabling us to (i) describe the set of objects under consideration; (ii) perform a multi-stage optimization of objects relative to different criteria; (iii) count the number of optimal objects; (iv) find the set of Pareto optimal points for bi-criteria optimization problems; and (v) to study relationships between two criteria. It considers various applications, including optimization of decision trees and decision rule systems as algorithms for problem solving, as ways for knowledge representation, and as classifiers; optimization of element partition trees for rectangular meshes, which are used in finite element methods for solving PDEs; and multi-stage optimization for such classic combinatorial optimization problems as matrix chain multiplication, binary search trees, global sequence alignment, and shortest paths. The results presented are useful for researchers in combinatorial optimization, data mining, knowledge discovery, machine learning, and finite element methods, especially those working in rough set theory, test theory, logical analysis of data, and PDE solvers. This book can be used as the basis for graduate courses.
  • Summability Calculus

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim (Springer Nature, 2018-03-07) [Book]
    This book develops the foundations of “summability calculus”, which is a comprehensive theory of fractional finite sums. It fills an important gap in the literature by unifying and extending disparate historical results. It also presents new material that has not been published before. Importantly, it shows how the study of fractional finite sums benefits from and contributes to many areas of mathematics, such as divergent series, numerical integration, approximation theory, asymptotic methods, special functions, series acceleration, Fourier analysis, the calculus of finite differences, and information theory. As such, it appeals to a wide audience of mathematicians whose interests include the study of special functions, summability theory, analytic number theory, series and sequences, approximation theory, asymptotic expansions, or numerical methods. Richly illustrated, it features chapter summaries, and includes numerous examples and exercises. The content is mostly developed from scratch using only undergraduate mathematics, such as calculus and linear algebra.
  • State of the climate in 2016

    Aaron-Morrison, Arlene P.; Ackerman, Steven A.; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Adler, Robert F.; Albanil, Adelina; Alfaro, E. J.; Allan, Rob; Alves, Lincoln M.; Amador, Jorge A.; Andreassen, L. M.; Arendt, A.; Arévalo, Juan; Arndt, Derek S.; Arzhanova, N. M.; Aschan, M. M.; Azorin-Molina, César; Banzon, Viva; Bardin, M. U.; Barichivich, Jonathan; Baringer, Molly O.; Barreira, Sandra; Baxter, Stephen; Bazo, Juan; Becker, Andreas; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Bell, Gerald D.; Belmont, M.; Benedetti, Angela; Bernhard, G.; Berrisford, Paul; Berry, David I.; Bettolli, María L.; Bhatt, U. S.; Bidegain, Mario; Bill, Brian D.; Billheimer, Sam; Bissolli, Peter; Blake, Eric S.; Blunden, Jessica; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Boucher, Olivier; Boudet, Dagne; Box, J. E.; Boyer, Tim; Braathen, Geir O.; Bromwich, David H.; Brown, R.; Bulygina, Olga N.; Burgess, D.; Calderón, Blanca; Camargo, Suzana J.; Campbell, Jayaka D.; Cappelen, J.; Carrasco, Gualberto; Carter, Brendan R.; Chambers, Don P.; Chandler, Elise; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Christy, John R.; Chung, Daniel; Chung, E. S.; Cinque, Kathy; Clem, Kyle R.; Coelho, Caio A.; Cogley, J. G.; Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie; Colwell, Steve; Cooper, Owen R.; Copland, L.; Cosca, Catherine E.; Cross, Jessica N.; Crotwell, Molly J.; Crouch, Jake; Davis, Sean M.; De Eyto, Elvira; De Jeu, Richard A.M.; De Laat, Jos; Degasperi, Curtis L.; Degenstein, Doug; Demircan, M.; Derksen, C.; Destin, Dale; Di Girolamo, Larry; Di Giuseppe, F.; Diamond, Howard J.; Dlugokencky, Ed J.; Dohan, Kathleen; Dokulil, Martin T.; Dolgov, A. V.; Dolman, A. Johannes; Domingues, Catia M.; Donat, Markus G.; Dong, Shenfu; Dorigo, Wouter A.; Dortch, Quay; Doucette, Greg; Drozdov, D. S.; Ducklow, Hugh; Dunn, Robert J.H.; Durán-Quesada, Ana M.; Dutton, Geoff S.; Ebrahim, A.; Elkharrim, M.; Elkins, James W.; Espinoza, Jhan C.; Etienne-Leblanc, Sheryl; Evans, Thomas E.; Famiglietti, James S.; Farrell, S.; Fateh, S.; Fausto, Robert S.; Fedaeff, Nava; Feely, Richard A.; Feng, Z.; Fenimore, Chris; Fettweis, X.; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Flemming, Johannes; Fogarty, Chris T.; Fogt, Ryan L.; Folland, Chris; Fonseca, C.; Fossheim, M.; Foster, Michael J.; Fountain, Andrew; Francis, S. D.; Franz, Bryan A.; Frey, Richard A.; Frith, Stacey M.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Ganter, Catherine; Garzoli, Silvia; Gerland, S.; Gobron, Nadine; Goldenberg, Stanley B.; Gomez, R. Sorbonne; Goni, Gustavo; Goto, A.; Grooß, J. U.; Gruber, Alexander; Guard, Charles Chip; Gugliemin, Mauro; Gupta, S. K.; Gutiérrez, J. M.; Hagos, S.; Hahn, Sebastian; Haimberger, Leo; Hakkarainen, J.; Hall, Brad D.; Halpert, Michael S.; Hamlington, Benjamin D.; Hanna, E.; Hansen, K.; Hanssen-Bauer, I.; Harris, Ian; Heidinger, Andrew K.; Heikkilä, A.; Heil, A.; Heim, Richard R.; Hendricks, S.; Hernández, Marieta; Hidalgo, Hugo G.; Hilburn, Kyle; Ho, Shu Peng Ben; Holmes, R. M.; Hu, Zeng Zhen; Huang, Boyin; Huelsing, Hannah K.; Huffman, George J.; Hughes, C.; Hurst, Dale F.; Ialongo, I.; Ijampy, J. A.; Ingvaldsen, R. B.; Inness, Antje; Isaksen, K.; Ishii, Masayoshi; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jiménez, C.; Jin, Xiangze; Johannesen, E.; John, Viju; Johnsen, B.; Johnson, Bryan; Johnson, Gregory C.; Jones, Philip D.; Joseph, Annie C.; Jumaux, Guillaume; Kabidi, Khadija; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Kato, Seiji; Kazemi, A.; Keller, Linda M.; Kendon, Mike; Kennedy, John; Kerr, Kenneth; Kholodov, A. L.; Khoshkam, Mahbobeh; Killick, Rachel; Kim, Hyungjun; Kim, S. J.; Kimberlain, Todd B.; Klotzbach, Philip J.; Knaff, John A.; Kobayashi, Shinya; Kohler, J.; Korhonen, Johanna; Korshunova, Natalia N.; Kovacs, K. M.; Kramarova, Natalya; Kratz, D. P.; Kruger, Andries; Kruk, Michael C.; Kudela, Raphael; Kumar, Arun; Lakatos, M.; Lakkala, K.; Lander, Mark A.; Landsea, Chris W.; Lankhorst, Matthias; Lantz, Kathleen; Lazzara, Matthew A.; Lemons, P.; Leuliette, Eric; L’Heureux, Michelle; Lieser, Jan L.; Lin, I. I.; Liu, Hongxing; Liu, Yinghui; Locarnini, Ricardo; Loeb, Norman G.; Lo Monaco, Claire; Long, Craig S.; López Álvarez, Luis Alfonso; Lorrey, Andrew M.; Loyola, Diego; Lumpkin, Rick; Luo, Jing Jia; Luojus, K.; Lydersen, C.; Lyman, John M.; Maberly, Stephen C.; Maddux, Brent C.; Malheiros Ramos, Andrea; Malkova, G. V.; Manney, G.; Marcellin, Vernie; Marchenko, S. S.; Marengo, José A.; Marra, John J.; Marszelewski, Wlodzimierz; Martens, B.; Martínez-Güingla, Rodney; Massom, Robert A.; Mata, Mauricio M.; Mathis, Jeremy T.; May, Linda; Mayer, Michael; Mazloff, Matthew; McBride, Charlotte; McCabe, Matthew; McCarthy, M.; McClelland, J. W.; McGree, Simon; McVicar, Tim R.; Mears, Carl A.; Meier, W.; Meinen, Christopher S.; Mekonnen, A.; Menéndez, Melisa; Mengistu Tsidu, G.; Menzel, W. Paul; Merchant, Christopher J.; Meredith, Michael P.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Metzl, N.; Minnis, Patrick; Miralles, Diego G.; Mistelbauer, T.; Mitchum, Gary T.; Monselesan, Didier; Monteiro, Pedro; Montzka, Stephen A.; Morice, Colin; Mote, T.; Mudryk, L.; Mühle, Jens; Mullan, A. Brett; Nash, Eric R.; Naveira-Garabato, Alberto C.; Nerem, R. Steven; Newman, Paul A.; Nieto, Juan José; Noetzli, Jeannette; O’Neel, S.; Osborn, Tim J.; Overland, J.; Oyunjargal, Lamjav; Parinussa, Robert M.; Park, E. Hyung; Parker, David; Parrington, M.; Parsons, A. Rost; Pasch, Richard J.; Pascual-Ramírez, Reynaldo; Paterson, Andrew M.; Paulik, Christoph; Pearce, Petra R.; Pelto, Mauri S.; Peng, Liang; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E.; Perovich, D.; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Pezza, Alexandre B.; Phillips, David; Pinty, Bernard; Pitts, Michael C.; Pons, M. R.; Porter, Avalon O.; Primicerio, R.; Proshutinsky, A.; Quegan, Sean; Quintana, Juan; Rahimzadeh, Fatemeh; Rajeevan, Madhavan; Randriamarolaza, L.; Razuvaev, Vyacheslav N.; Reagan, James; Reid, Phillip; Reimer, Christoph; Rémy, Samuel; Renwick, James A.; Revadekar, Jayashree V.; Richter-Menge, J.; Riffler, Michael; Rimmer, Alon; Rintoul, Steve; Robinson, David A.; Rodell, Matthew; Rodríguez Solís, José L.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Ronchail, Josyane; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Roth, Chris; Rusak, James A.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Sallée, Jean Bapiste; Sánchez-Lugo, Ahira; Santee, Michelle L.; Sawaengphokhai, P.; Sayouri, Amal; Scambos, Ted A.; Schemm, Jae; Schladow, S. Geoffrey; Schmid, Claudia; Schmid, Martin, Eawag; Schmidtko, Sunke; Schreck, Carl J.; Selkirk, H. B.; Send, Uwe; Sensoy, Serhat; Setzer, Alberto; Sharp, M.; Shaw, Adrian; Shi, Lei; Shiklomanov, A. I.; Shiklomanov, Nikolai I.; Siegel, David A.; Signorini, Sergio R.; Sima, Fatou; Simmons, Adrian J.; Smeets, C. J.P.P.; Smith, Sharon L.; Spence, Jaqueline M.; Srivastava, A. K.; Stackhouse, Paul W.; Stammerjohn, Sharon; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Stella, José L.; Stengel, Martin; Stennett-Brown, Roxann; Stephenson, Tannecia S.; Strahan, Susan; Streletskiy, D. A.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Swart, Sebastiaan; Sweet, William; Talley, Lynne D.; Tamar, Gerard; Tank, S. E.; Taylor, Michael A.; Tedesco, M.; Teubner, Katrin; Thoman, R. L.; Thompson, Philip; Thomson, L.; Timmermans, M. L.; Timofeev, Maxim A.; Tirnanes, Joaquin A.; Tobin, Skie; Trachte, Katja; Trainer, Vera L.; Tretiakov, M.; Trewin, Blair C.; Trotman, Adrian R.; Tschudi, M.; Van As, D.; Van De Wal, R. S.W.; van der A., Ronald J.; Van Der Schalie, Robin; Van Der Schrier, Gerard; Van Der Werf, Guido R.; Van Meerbeeck, Cedric J.; Velicogna, I.; Verburg, Piet; Vigneswaran, Bala; Vincent, Lucie A.; Volkov, Denis; Vose, Russell S.; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wåhlin, Anna; Wahr, J.; Walsh, J.; Wang, Chunzai; Wang, Junhong; Wang, Lei; Wang, M.; Wang, Sheng Hung; Wanninkhof, Rik; Watanabe, Shohei; Weber, Mark; Weller, Robert A.; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Whitewood, Robert; Wijffels, Susan E.; Wilber, Anne C.; Wild, Jeanette D.; Willett, Kate M.; Williams, Michael J.M.; Willie, Shem; Wolken, G.; Wong, Takmeng; Wood, E. F.; Woolway, R. Iestyn; Wouters, B.; Xue, Yan; Yamada, Ryuji; Yim, So Young; Yin, Xungang; Young, Steven H.; Yu, Lisan; Zahid, H.; Zambrano, Eduardo; Zhang, Peiqun; Zhao, Guanguo; Zhou, Lin; Ziemke, Jerry R.; Love-Brotak, S. Elizabeth; Gilbert, Kristin; Maycock, Tom; Osborne, Susan; Sprain, Mara; Veasey, Sara W.; Ambrose, Barbara J.; Griffin, Jessicca; Misch, Deborah J.; Riddle, Deborah B.; Young, Teresa; Romanovsky, Vladimir E. (Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, American Meteorological Society, 2017-09-06) [Report]
    In 2016, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth's atmosphere-carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide-continued to increase and reach new record highs. The 3.5 ± 0.1 ppm rise in global annual mean carbon dioxide from 2015 to 2016 was the largest annual increase observed in the 58-year measurement record. The annual global average carbon dioxide concentration at Earth's surface surpassed 400 ppm (402.9 ± 0.1 ppm) for the first time in the modern atmospheric measurement record and in ice core records dating back as far as 800000 years. One of the strongest El Niño events since at least 1950 dissipated in spring, and a weak La Niña evolved later in the year. Owing at least in part to the combination of El Niño conditions early in the year and a long-term upward trend, Earth's surface observed record warmth for a third consecutive year, albeit by a much slimmer margin than by which that record was set in 2015. Above Earth's surface, the annual lower troposphere temperature was record high according to all datasets analyzed, while the lower stratospheric temperature was record low according to most of the in situ and satellite datasets. Several countries, including Mexico and India, reported record high annual temperatures while many others observed near-record highs. A week-long heat wave at the end of April over the northern and eastern Indian peninsula, with temperatures surpassing 44°C, contributed to a water crisis for 330 million people and to 300 fatalities. In the Arctic the 2016 land surface temperature was 2.0°C above the 1981-2010 average, breaking the previous record of 2007, 2011, and 2015 by 0.8°C, representing a 3.5°C increase since the record began in 1900. The increasing temperatures have led to decreasing Arctic sea ice extent and thickness. On 24 March, the sea ice extent at the end of the growth season saw its lowest maximum in the 37-year satellite record, tying with 2015 at 7.2% below the 1981-2010 average. The September 2016 Arctic sea ice minimum extent tied with 2007 for the second lowest value on record, 33% lower than the 1981-2010 average. Arctic sea ice cover remains relatively young and thin, making it vulnerable to continued extensive melt. The mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet, which has the capacity to contribute ∼7 m to sea level rise, reached a record low value. The onset of its surface melt was the second earliest, after 2012, in the 37-year satellite record. Sea surface temperature was record high at the global scale, surpassing the previous record of 2015 by about 0.01°C. The global sea surface temperature trend for the 21st centuryto-date of +0.162°C decade-1 is much higher than the longer term 1950-2016 trend of +0.100°C decade-1. Global annual mean sea level also reached a new record high, marking the sixth consecutive year of increase. Global annual ocean heat content saw a slight drop compared to the record high in 2015. Alpine glacier retreat continued around the globe, and preliminary data indicate that 2016 is the 37th consecutive year of negative annual mass balance. Across the Northern Hemisphere, snow cover for each month from February to June was among its four least extensive in the 47-year satellite record. Continuing a pattern below the surface, record high temperatures at 20-m depth were measured at all permafrost observatories on the North Slope of Alaska and at the Canadian observatory on northernmost Ellesmere Island. In the Antarctic, record low monthly surface pressures were broken at many stations, with the southern annular mode setting record high index values in March and June. Monthly high surface pressure records for August and November were set at several stations. During this period, record low daily and monthly sea ice extents were observed, with the November mean sea ice extent more than 5 standard deviations below the 1981-2010 average. These record low sea ice values contrast sharply with the record high values observed during 2012-14. Over the region, springtime Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletion was less severe relative to the 1991-2006 average, but ozone levels were still low compared to pre-1990 levels. Closer to the equator, 93 named tropical storms were observed during 2016, above the 1981-2010 average of 82, but fewer than the 101 storms recorded in 2015. Three basins-the North Atlantic, and eastern and western North Pacific-experienced above-normal activity in 2016. The Australian basin recorded its least active season since the beginning of the satellite era in 1970. Overall, four tropical cyclones reached the Saffir-Simpson category 5 intensity level. The strong El Niño at the beginning of the year that transitioned to a weak La Niña contributed to enhanced precipitation variability around the world. Wet conditions were observed throughout the year across southern South America, causing repeated heavy flooding in Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Wetter-than-usual conditions were also observed for eastern Europe and central Asia, alleviating the drought conditions of 2014 and 2015 in southern Russia. In the United States, California had its first wetter-than-average year since 2012, after being plagued by drought for several years. Even so, the area covered by drought in 2016 at the global scale was among the largest in the post-1950 record. For each month, at least 12% of land surfaces experienced severe drought conditions or worse, the longest such stretch in the record. In northeastern Brazil, drought conditions were observed for the fifth consecutive year, making this the longest drought on record in the region. Dry conditions were also observed in western Bolivia and Peru; it was Bolivia's worst drought in the past 25 years. In May, with abnormally warm and dry conditions already prevailing over western Canada for about a year, the human-induced Fort McMurray wildfire burned nearly 590000 hectares and became the costliest disaster in Canadian history, with $3 billion (U.S. dollars) in insured losses.

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