Recent Submissions

  • Comparative Analysis of Deterministic and Nondeterministic Decision Trees

    Moshkov, Mikhail (Springer International Publishing, 2020-03-13) [Book]
    This book compares four parameters of problems in arbitrary information systems: complexity of problem representation and complexity of deterministic, nondeterministic, and strongly nondeterministic decision trees for problem solving. Deterministic decision trees are widely used as classifiers, as a means of knowledge representation, and as algorithms. Nondeterministic (strongly nondeterministic) decision trees can be interpreted as systems of true decision rules that cover all objects (objects from one decision class). This book develops tools for the study of decision trees, including bounds on complexity and algorithms for construction of decision trees for decision tables with many-valued decisions. It considers two approaches to the investigation of decision trees for problems in information systems: local, when decision trees can use only attributes from the problem representation; and global, when decision trees can use arbitrary attributes from the information system. For both approaches, it describes all possible types of relationships among the four parameters considered and discusses the algorithmic problems related to decision tree optimization. The results presented are useful for researchers who apply decision trees and rules to algorithm design and to data analysis, especially those working in rough set theory, test theory and logical analysis of data. This book can also be used as the basis for graduate courses.
  • Artificially Intelligent Nanomaterials

    Wang, Peng; Chang, Jian; Zhang, Lianbin (Wiley, 2019-11-08) [Book]

    Tainter, Joseph A.; Patzek, Tadeusz (Aracne editrice, 2019-11) [Book]
    Un modello che coniuga semplicità ed eleganza, proponendoci uno strumento efficace per affrontare una problematica emergente, è quello che fa la differenza, che può guadagnarsi un proprio spazio nella storia delle idee. Quanto detto, può facilmente essere riferito alla potente immagine che sta al centro di questo volume: la spirale energia complessità. Questo ci sembra costituire un valido motivo per proporre un’edizione italiana del lavoro di Tainter e Patzek, pubblicato per la prima volta negli Stati Uniti nel 2012, ma che ha retto ed è destinato a reggere egregiamente l’impatto del tempo, a dispetto del carattere estremamente volatile di un complesso di tematiche connesse con il caso studio prescelto (l’incidente petrolifero occorso nel Golfo del Messico nell’aprile del 2010).
  • Sustainable nanoscale engineering: From materials design to chemical processing

    (Elsevier, 2019-10-18) [Book]
    Sustainable Nanoscale Engineering: From Materials Design to Chemical Processing presents the latest on the design of nanoscale materials and their applications in sustainable chemical production processes. The newest achievements of materials science, in particular nanomaterials, opened new opportunities for chemical engineers to design more efficient, safe, compact and environmentally benign processes. These materials include metal-organic frameworks, graphene, membranes, imprinted polymers, polymers of intrinsic microporosity, nanoparticles, and nanofilms, to name a few. Topics discussed include gas separation, CO2 sequestration, continuous processes, waste valorization, catalytic processes, bioengineering, pharmaceutical manufacturing, supercritical CO2 technology, sustainable energy, molecular imprinting, graphene, nature inspired chemical engineering, desalination, and more.
  • Marine Metagenomics

    (Springer Singapore, 2019-07-24) [Book]
    This book presents the state-of-art marine metagenome research and explains the method of marine metagenomic analysis in an easy-to-understand manner. Changes in the marine environment due to global warming and pollution have become a major global problem. Maintaining a healthy marine ecosystem requires advanced environmental monitoring and assessment systems. As such, the book presents a novel metagenomic monitoring method, which has been developed for comprehensive analyses of the DNA of microorganisms living in seawater to further our understanding of the dynamics of the marine environment. The book can be used as a primer for new researchers and as a manual on experimental methods.
  • Decision and Inhibitory Trees and Rules for Decision Tables with Many-valued Decisions

    Alsolami, Fawaz; Azad, Mohammad; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail (Springer International Publishing, 2019-05-21) [Book]
    The results presented here (including the assessment of a new tool – inhibitory trees) offer valuable tools for researchers in the areas of data mining, knowledge discovery, and machine learning, especially those whose work involves decision tables with many-valued decisions. The authors consider various examples of problems and corresponding decision tables with many-valued decisions, discuss the difference between decision and inhibitory trees and rules, and develop tools for their analysis and design. Applications include the study of totally optimal (optimal in relation to a number of criteria simultaneously) decision and inhibitory trees and rules; the comparison of greedy heuristics for tree and rule construction as single-criterion and bi-criteria optimization algorithms; and the development of a restricted multi-pruning approach used in classification and knowledge representation.
  • Coral Reefs of the Red Sea

    (Springer International Publishing, 2019-05-07) [Book]
    This volume is a complete review and reference work for scientists, engineers, and students concerned with coral reefs in the Red Sea. It provides an up-to-date review on the geology, ecology, and physiology of coral reef ecosystems in the Red Sea, including data from most recent molecular studies. The Red Sea harbours a set of unique ecological characteristics, such as high temperature, high alkalinity, and high salinity, in a quasi-isolated environment. This makes it a perfect laboratory to study and understand adaptation in regard to the impact of climate change on marine ecosystems. This book can be used as a general reference, guide, or textbook.
  • A Survey on 3D Cameras: Metrological Comparison of Time-of-Flight, Structured-Light and Active Stereoscopy Technologies

    Giancola, Silvio; Valenti, Matteo; Sala, Remo (SpringerBriefs in Computer Science, Springer Nature, 2018-06-19) [Book]
    This book is a valuable resource to deeply understand the technology used in 3D cameras. In this book, the authors summarize and compare the specifications of the main 3D cameras available in the mass market. The authors present a deep metrological analysis of the main camera based on the three main technologies: Time-of-Flight, Structured-Light and Active Stereoscopy, and provide qualitative results for any user to understand the underlying technology within 3D camera, as well as practical guidance on how to get the most of them for a given application.
  • Extensions of dynamic programming for combinatorial optimization and data mining

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.; Amin, Talha M.; Chikalov, Igor; Hussain, Shahid; Moshkov, Mikhail (Springer International Publishing, 2018-05-22) [Book]
    Dynamic programming is an efficient technique for solving optimization problems. It is based on breaking the initial problem down into simpler ones and solving these sub-problems, beginning with the simplest ones. A conventional dynamic programming algorithm returns an optimal object from a given set of objects. This book develops extensions of dynamic programming, enabling us to (i) describe the set of objects under consideration; (ii) perform a multi-stage optimization of objects relative to different criteria; (iii) count the number of optimal objects; (iv) find the set of Pareto optimal points for bi-criteria optimization problems; and (v) to study relationships between two criteria. It considers various applications, including optimization of decision trees and decision rule systems as algorithms for problem solving, as ways for knowledge representation, and as classifiers; optimization of element partition trees for rectangular meshes, which are used in finite element methods for solving PDEs; and multi-stage optimization for such classic combinatorial optimization problems as matrix chain multiplication, binary search trees, global sequence alignment, and shortest paths. The results presented are useful for researchers in combinatorial optimization, data mining, knowledge discovery, machine learning, and finite element methods, especially those working in rough set theory, test theory, logical analysis of data, and PDE solvers. This book can be used as the basis for graduate courses.
  • Summability Calculus

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim (Springer International Publishing, 2018-03-07) [Book]
    This book develops the foundations of “summability calculus”, which is a comprehensive theory of fractional finite sums. It fills an important gap in the literature by unifying and extending disparate historical results. It also presents new material that has not been published before. Importantly, it shows how the study of fractional finite sums benefits from and contributes to many areas of mathematics, such as divergent series, numerical integration, approximation theory, asymptotic methods, special functions, series acceleration, Fourier analysis, the calculus of finite differences, and information theory. As such, it appeals to a wide audience of mathematicians whose interests include the study of special functions, summability theory, analytic number theory, series and sequences, approximation theory, asymptotic expansions, or numerical methods. Richly illustrated, it features chapter summaries, and includes numerous examples and exercises. The content is mostly developed from scratch using only undergraduate mathematics, such as calculus and linear algebra.
  • State of the climate in 2016

    Aaron-Morrison, Arlene P.; Ackerman, Steven A.; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Adler, Robert F.; Albanil, Adelina; Alfaro, E. J.; Allan, Rob; Alves, Lincoln M.; Amador, Jorge A.; Andreassen, L. M.; Arendt, A.; Arévalo, Juan; Arndt, Derek S.; Arzhanova, N. M.; Aschan, M. M.; Azorin-Molina, César; Banzon, Viva; Bardin, M. U.; Barichivich, Jonathan; Baringer, Molly O.; Barreira, Sandra; Baxter, Stephen; Bazo, Juan; Becker, Andreas; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Bell, Gerald D.; Belmont, M.; Benedetti, Angela; Bernhard, G.; Berrisford, Paul; Berry, David I.; Bettolli, María L.; Bhatt, U. S.; Bidegain, Mario; Bill, Brian D.; Billheimer, Sam; Bissolli, Peter; Blake, Eric S.; Blunden, Jessica; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Boucher, Olivier; Boudet, Dagne; Box, J. E.; Boyer, Tim; Braathen, Geir O.; Bromwich, David H.; Brown, R.; Bulygina, Olga N.; Burgess, D.; Calderón, Blanca; Camargo, Suzana J.; Campbell, Jayaka D.; Cappelen, J.; Carrasco, Gualberto; Carter, Brendan R.; Chambers, Don P.; Chandler, Elise; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Christy, John R.; Chung, Daniel; Chung, E. S.; Cinque, Kathy; Clem, Kyle R.; Coelho, Caio A.; Cogley, J. G.; Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie; Colwell, Steve; Cooper, Owen R.; Copland, L.; Cosca, Catherine E.; Cross, Jessica N.; Crotwell, Molly J.; Crouch, Jake; Davis, Sean M.; De Eyto, Elvira; De Jeu, Richard A.M.; De Laat, Jos; Degasperi, Curtis L.; Degenstein, Doug; Demircan, M.; Derksen, C.; Destin, Dale; Di Girolamo, Larry; Di Giuseppe, F.; Diamond, Howard J.; Dlugokencky, Ed J.; Dohan, Kathleen; Dokulil, Martin T.; Dolgov, A. V.; Dolman, A. Johannes; Domingues, Catia M.; Donat, Markus G.; Dong, Shenfu; Dorigo, Wouter A.; Dortch, Quay; Doucette, Greg; Drozdov, D. S.; Ducklow, Hugh; Dunn, Robert J.H.; Durán-Quesada, Ana M.; Dutton, Geoff S.; Ebrahim, A.; Elkharrim, M.; Elkins, James W.; Espinoza, Jhan C.; Etienne-Leblanc, Sheryl; Evans, Thomas E.; Famiglietti, James S.; Farrell, S.; Fateh, S.; Fausto, Robert S.; Fedaeff, Nava; Feely, Richard A.; Feng, Z.; Fenimore, Chris; Fettweis, X.; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Flemming, Johannes; Fogarty, Chris T.; Fogt, Ryan L.; Folland, Chris; Fonseca, C.; Fossheim, M.; Foster, Michael J.; Fountain, Andrew; Francis, S. D.; Franz, Bryan A.; Frey, Richard A.; Frith, Stacey M.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Ganter, Catherine; Garzoli, Silvia; Gerland, S.; Gobron, Nadine; Goldenberg, Stanley B.; Gomez, R. Sorbonne; Goni, Gustavo; Goto, A.; Grooß, J. U.; Gruber, Alexander; Guard, Charles Chip; Gugliemin, Mauro; Gupta, S. K.; Gutiérrez, J. M.; Hagos, S.; Hahn, Sebastian; Haimberger, Leo; Hakkarainen, J.; Hall, Brad D.; Halpert, Michael S.; Hamlington, Benjamin D.; Hanna, E.; Hansen, K.; Hanssen-Bauer, I.; Harris, Ian; Heidinger, Andrew K.; Heikkilä, A.; Heil, A.; Heim, Richard R.; Hendricks, S.; Hernández, Marieta; Hidalgo, Hugo G.; Hilburn, Kyle; Ho, Shu Peng Ben; Holmes, R. M.; Hu, Zeng Zhen; Huang, Boyin; Huelsing, Hannah K.; Huffman, George J.; Hughes, C.; Hurst, Dale F.; Ialongo, I.; Ijampy, J. A.; Ingvaldsen, R. B.; Inness, Antje; Isaksen, K.; Ishii, Masayoshi; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jiménez, C.; Jin, Xiangze; Johannesen, E.; John, Viju; Johnsen, B.; Johnson, Bryan; Johnson, Gregory C.; Jones, Philip D.; Joseph, Annie C.; Jumaux, Guillaume; Kabidi, Khadija; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Kato, Seiji; Kazemi, A.; Keller, Linda M.; Kendon, Mike; Kennedy, John; Kerr, Kenneth; Kholodov, A. L.; Khoshkam, Mahbobeh; Killick, Rachel; Kim, Hyungjun; Kim, S. J.; Kimberlain, Todd B.; Klotzbach, Philip J.; Knaff, John A.; Kobayashi, Shinya; Kohler, J.; Korhonen, Johanna; Korshunova, Natalia N.; Kovacs, K. M.; Kramarova, Natalya; Kratz, D. P.; Kruger, Andries; Kruk, Michael C.; Kudela, Raphael; Kumar, Arun; Lakatos, M.; Lakkala, K.; Lander, Mark A.; Landsea, Chris W.; Lankhorst, Matthias; Lantz, Kathleen; Lazzara, Matthew A.; Lemons, P.; Leuliette, Eric; L’Heureux, Michelle; Lieser, Jan L.; Lin, I. I.; Liu, Hongxing; Liu, Yinghui; Locarnini, Ricardo; Loeb, Norman G.; Lo Monaco, Claire; Long, Craig S.; López Álvarez, Luis Alfonso; Lorrey, Andrew M.; Loyola, Diego; Lumpkin, Rick; Luo, Jing Jia; Luojus, K.; Lydersen, C.; Lyman, John M.; Maberly, Stephen C.; Maddux, Brent C.; Malheiros Ramos, Andrea; Malkova, G. V.; Manney, G.; Marcellin, Vernie; Marchenko, S. S.; Marengo, José A.; Marra, John J.; Marszelewski, Wlodzimierz; Martens, B.; Martínez-Güingla, Rodney; Massom, Robert A.; Mata, Mauricio M.; Mathis, Jeremy T.; May, Linda; Mayer, Michael; Mazloff, Matthew; McBride, Charlotte; McCabe, Matthew; McCarthy, M.; McClelland, J. W.; McGree, Simon; McVicar, Tim R.; Mears, Carl A.; Meier, W.; Meinen, Christopher S.; Mekonnen, A.; Menéndez, Melisa; Mengistu Tsidu, G.; Menzel, W. Paul; Merchant, Christopher J.; Meredith, Michael P.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Metzl, N.; Minnis, Patrick; Miralles, Diego G.; Mistelbauer, T.; Mitchum, Gary T.; Monselesan, Didier; Monteiro, Pedro; Montzka, Stephen A.; Morice, Colin; Mote, T.; Mudryk, L.; Mühle, Jens; Mullan, A. Brett; Nash, Eric R.; Naveira-Garabato, Alberto C.; Nerem, R. Steven; Newman, Paul A.; Nieto, Juan José; Noetzli, Jeannette; O’Neel, S.; Osborn, Tim J.; Overland, J.; Oyunjargal, Lamjav; Parinussa, Robert M.; Park, E. Hyung; Parker, David; Parrington, M.; Parsons, A. Rost; Pasch, Richard J.; Pascual-Ramírez, Reynaldo; Paterson, Andrew M.; Paulik, Christoph; Pearce, Petra R.; Pelto, Mauri S.; Peng, Liang; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E.; Perovich, D.; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Pezza, Alexandre B.; Phillips, David; Pinty, Bernard; Pitts, Michael C.; Pons, M. R.; Porter, Avalon O.; Primicerio, R.; Proshutinsky, A.; Quegan, Sean; Quintana, Juan; Rahimzadeh, Fatemeh; Rajeevan, Madhavan; Randriamarolaza, L.; Razuvaev, Vyacheslav N.; Reagan, James; Reid, Phillip; Reimer, Christoph; Rémy, Samuel; Renwick, James A.; Revadekar, Jayashree V.; Richter-Menge, J.; Riffler, Michael; Rimmer, Alon; Rintoul, Steve; Robinson, David A.; Rodell, Matthew; Rodríguez Solís, José L.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Ronchail, Josyane; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Roth, Chris; Rusak, James A.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Sallée, Jean Bapiste; Sánchez-Lugo, Ahira; Santee, Michelle L.; Sawaengphokhai, P.; Sayouri, Amal; Scambos, Ted A.; Schemm, Jae; Schladow, S. Geoffrey; Schmid, Claudia; Schmid, Martin; Schmidtko, Sunke; Schreck, Carl J.; Selkirk, H. B.; Send, Uwe; Sensoy, Serhat; Setzer, Alberto; Sharp, M.; Shaw, Adrian; Shi, Lei; Shiklomanov, A. I.; Shiklomanov, Nikolai I.; Siegel, David A.; Signorini, Sergio R.; Sima, Fatou; Simmons, Adrian J.; Smeets, C. J.P.P.; Smith, Sharon L.; Spence, Jaqueline M.; Srivastava, A. K.; Stackhouse, Paul W.; Stammerjohn, Sharon; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Stella, José L.; Stengel, Martin; Stennett-Brown, Roxann; Stephenson, Tannecia S.; Strahan, Susan; Streletskiy, D. A.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Swart, Sebastiaan; Sweet, William; Talley, Lynne D.; Tamar, Gerard; Tank, S. E.; Taylor, Michael A.; Tedesco, M.; Teubner, Katrin; Thoman, R. L.; Thompson, Philip; Thomson, L.; Timmermans, M. L.; Timofeev, Maxim A.; Tirnanes, Joaquin A.; Tobin, Skie; Trachte, Katja; Trainer, Vera L.; Tretiakov, M.; Trewin, Blair C.; Trotman, Adrian R.; Tschudi, M.; Van As, D.; Van De Wal, R. S.W.; van der A., Ronald J.; Van Der Schalie, Robin; Van Der Schrier, Gerard; Van Der Werf, Guido R.; Van Meerbeeck, Cedric J.; Velicogna, I.; Verburg, Piet; Vigneswaran, Bala; Vincent, Lucie A.; Volkov, Denis; Vose, Russell S.; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wåhlin, Anna; Wahr, J.; Walsh, J.; Wang, Chunzai; Wang, Junhong; Wang, Lei; Wang, M.; Wang, Sheng Hung; Wanninkhof, Rik; Watanabe, Shohei; Weber, Mark; Weller, Robert A.; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Whitewood, Robert; Wijffels, Susan E.; Wilber, Anne C.; Wild, Jeanette D.; Willett, Kate M.; Williams, Michael J.M.; Willie, Shem; Wolken, G.; Wong, Takmeng; Wood, E. F.; Woolway, R. Iestyn; Wouters, B.; Xue, Yan; Yamada, Ryuji; Yim, So Young; Yin, Xungang; Young, Steven H.; Yu, Lisan; Zahid, H.; Zambrano, Eduardo; Zhang, Peiqun; Zhao, Guanguo; Zhou, Lin; Ziemke, Jerry R.; Love-Brotak, S. Elizabeth; Gilbert, Kristin; Maycock, Tom; Osborne, Susan; Sprain, Mara; Veasey, Sara W.; Ambrose, Barbara J.; Griffin, Jessicca; Misch, Deborah J.; Riddle, Deborah B.; Young, Teresa; Romanovsky, Vladimir E. (Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, American Meteorological Society, 2017-09-06) [Report]
    In 2016, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth's atmosphere-carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide-continued to increase and reach new record highs. The 3.5 ± 0.1 ppm rise in global annual mean carbon dioxide from 2015 to 2016 was the largest annual increase observed in the 58-year measurement record. The annual global average carbon dioxide concentration at Earth's surface surpassed 400 ppm (402.9 ± 0.1 ppm) for the first time in the modern atmospheric measurement record and in ice core records dating back as far as 800000 years. One of the strongest El Niño events since at least 1950 dissipated in spring, and a weak La Niña evolved later in the year. Owing at least in part to the combination of El Niño conditions early in the year and a long-term upward trend, Earth's surface observed record warmth for a third consecutive year, albeit by a much slimmer margin than by which that record was set in 2015. Above Earth's surface, the annual lower troposphere temperature was record high according to all datasets analyzed, while the lower stratospheric temperature was record low according to most of the in situ and satellite datasets. Several countries, including Mexico and India, reported record high annual temperatures while many others observed near-record highs. A week-long heat wave at the end of April over the northern and eastern Indian peninsula, with temperatures surpassing 44°C, contributed to a water crisis for 330 million people and to 300 fatalities. In the Arctic the 2016 land surface temperature was 2.0°C above the 1981-2010 average, breaking the previous record of 2007, 2011, and 2015 by 0.8°C, representing a 3.5°C increase since the record began in 1900. The increasing temperatures have led to decreasing Arctic sea ice extent and thickness. On 24 March, the sea ice extent at the end of the growth season saw its lowest maximum in the 37-year satellite record, tying with 2015 at 7.2% below the 1981-2010 average. The September 2016 Arctic sea ice minimum extent tied with 2007 for the second lowest value on record, 33% lower than the 1981-2010 average. Arctic sea ice cover remains relatively young and thin, making it vulnerable to continued extensive melt. The mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet, which has the capacity to contribute ∼7 m to sea level rise, reached a record low value. The onset of its surface melt was the second earliest, after 2012, in the 37-year satellite record. Sea surface temperature was record high at the global scale, surpassing the previous record of 2015 by about 0.01°C. The global sea surface temperature trend for the 21st centuryto-date of +0.162°C decade-1 is much higher than the longer term 1950-2016 trend of +0.100°C decade-1. Global annual mean sea level also reached a new record high, marking the sixth consecutive year of increase. Global annual ocean heat content saw a slight drop compared to the record high in 2015. Alpine glacier retreat continued around the globe, and preliminary data indicate that 2016 is the 37th consecutive year of negative annual mass balance. Across the Northern Hemisphere, snow cover for each month from February to June was among its four least extensive in the 47-year satellite record. Continuing a pattern below the surface, record high temperatures at 20-m depth were measured at all permafrost observatories on the North Slope of Alaska and at the Canadian observatory on northernmost Ellesmere Island. In the Antarctic, record low monthly surface pressures were broken at many stations, with the southern annular mode setting record high index values in March and June. Monthly high surface pressure records for August and November were set at several stations. During this period, record low daily and monthly sea ice extents were observed, with the November mean sea ice extent more than 5 standard deviations below the 1981-2010 average. These record low sea ice values contrast sharply with the record high values observed during 2012-14. Over the region, springtime Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletion was less severe relative to the 1991-2006 average, but ozone levels were still low compared to pre-1990 levels. Closer to the equator, 93 named tropical storms were observed during 2016, above the 1981-2010 average of 82, but fewer than the 101 storms recorded in 2015. Three basins-the North Atlantic, and eastern and western North Pacific-experienced above-normal activity in 2016. The Australian basin recorded its least active season since the beginning of the satellite era in 1970. Overall, four tropical cyclones reached the Saffir-Simpson category 5 intensity level. The strong El Niño at the beginning of the year that transitioned to a weak La Niña contributed to enhanced precipitation variability around the world. Wet conditions were observed throughout the year across southern South America, causing repeated heavy flooding in Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Wetter-than-usual conditions were also observed for eastern Europe and central Asia, alleviating the drought conditions of 2014 and 2015 in southern Russia. In the United States, California had its first wetter-than-average year since 2012, after being plagued by drought for several years. Even so, the area covered by drought in 2016 at the global scale was among the largest in the post-1950 record. For each month, at least 12% of land surfaces experienced severe drought conditions or worse, the longest such stretch in the record. In northeastern Brazil, drought conditions were observed for the fifth consecutive year, making this the longest drought on record in the region. Dry conditions were also observed in western Bolivia and Peru; it was Bolivia's worst drought in the past 25 years. In May, with abnormally warm and dry conditions already prevailing over western Canada for about a year, the human-induced Fort McMurray wildfire burned nearly 590000 hectares and became the costliest disaster in Canadian history, with $3 billion (U.S. dollars) in insured losses.
  • Renewable energy technologies for water desalination

    (CRC Press, 2017-07-14) [Book]
    The book presents a thorough overview of the latest trends and challenges in renewable energy technologies applications for water desalination, with an emphasis on environmental concerns and sustainable development. Emphasis is on the various uses of renewable energy, as well as economics & scale-up, government subsidies & regulations, and environmental concerns. It provides an indication on how renewable energy technologies are rapidly emerging with the promise of economic and environmental viability for desalination. Further it gives a clear indication on how exactly to accelerate the expansion and commercialization of novel water production systems powered by renewable energies and in what manner environmental concerns may be minimized. This book is all-inclusive and wide-ranging and directed at decision makers in government, industry and the academic world as well as students.
  • Large-Scale Graph Processing Using Apache Giraph

    Sakr, Sherif; Orakzai, Faisal Moeen; Abdelaziz, Ibrahim; Khayyat, Zuhair (Springer International Publishing AG, 2017-01-06) [Book]
    This book takes its reader on a journey through Apache Giraph, a popular distributed graph processing platform designed to bring the power of big data processing to graph data. Designed as a step-by-step self-study guide for everyone interested in large-scale graph processing, it describes the fundamental abstractions of the system, its programming models and various techniques for using the system to process graph data at scale, including the implementation of several popular and advanced graph analytics algorithms.
  • Transformation wave physics: Electromagnetics, elastodynamics, and thermodynamics

    Farhat, Mohamed; Chen, Pai Yen; Guenneau, Sebastien; Enoch, Stefan (Informa UK Limited, 2016-11-18) [Book]
    Spacetime transformations as a design tool for a new class of composite materials (metamaterials) have proved successful recently. The concept is based on the fact that metamaterials can mimic a transformed but empty space. Light rays follow trajectories according to Fermats principle in this transformed electromagnetic, acoustic, or elastic space instead of laboratory space. This allows one to manipulate wave behaviors with various exotic characteristics such as (but not limited to) invisibility cloaks. This book is a collection of works by leading international experts in the fields of electromagnetics, plasmonics, elastodynamics, and diffusion waves. The experimental and theoretical contributions will revolutionize ways to control the propagation of sound, light, and other waves in macroscopic and microscopic scales. The potential applications range from underwater camouflaging and electromagnetic invisibility to enhanced biosensors and protection from harmful physical waves (e.g., tsunamis and earthquakes). This is the first book that deals with transformation physics for all kinds of waves in one volume, covering the newest results from emerging topical subjects such as transformational plasmonics and thermodynamics.
  • Regularity Theory for Mean-Field Game Systems

    Gomes, Diogo A.; Pimentel, Edgard A.; Voskanyan, Vardan K. (SpringerBriefs in Mathematics, Springer Nature, 2016-09-14) [Book]
    Beginning with a concise introduction to the theory of mean-field games (MFGs), this book presents the key elements of the regularity theory for MFGs. It then introduces a series of techniques for well-posedness in the context of mean-field problems, including stationary and time-dependent MFGs, subquadratic and superquadratic MFG formulations, and distinct classes of mean-field couplings. It also explores stationary and time-dependent MFGs through a series of a-priori estimates for solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi and Fokker-Planck equation. It shows sophisticated a-priori systems derived using a range of analytical techniques, and builds on previous results to explain classical solutions. The final chapter discusses the potential applications, models and natural extensions of MFGs. As MFGs connect common problems in pure mathematics, engineering, economics and data management, this book is a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students in these fields.
  • Rational Design of Next-generation Nanomaterials and Nanodevices for Water Applications

    (IWA Publishing, 2016-07-05) [Book]
    Despite the fact that nanotechnology has been present for a few decades, there is a big gap between what nanotechnology is perceived and what nanotechnology can truly offer in all sectors of water. The question to be answered is what more can we expect from nanotechnology in water field? The rational nano-design is based on scientifically clear problem definitions, necessitates interdisciplinary approaches, involves ‘think-outside-the-box’, is not bounded by the available nanomaterials, and represents the future growth point of environmental nanotechnology. It thus has great potential of creating nextgeneration and ground-breaking solutions to the water challenges of our times. Unfortunately, the concept of rational nano-design is largely new to the educated public and even scientists and engineers in water fields. Therefore, it is the purpose of this book to promote the concept of rational nano-design, to demonstrate its creativity and excitement, and to illustrate its remarkable potential to change the face of the research in water industry in the future. This book presents a series of carefully selected chapters, which represent drastically different, unconventional, and eye-opening approaches to conventional problems and each of the book contributors is world-renowned expert in the burgeoning field of rational nano-design for applications. Rational Design of Next-generation Nanomaterials and Nanodevices for Water Applications is intended for undergraduates, graduates, scientists and professionals in the fields of environmental science and engineering, material science, chemistry, and chemistry engineering. It provides coherent and good materials for teaching, research, and professional reference.
  • Transforming education in the gulf region: Emerging learning technologies and innovative pedagogy for the 21st century

    (Taylor and Francis, 2016-07-01) [Book]
    Countries in the Arab Gulf are currently experiencing some of the fastest rates of growth and progress in the world. Transforming Education in the Gulf Region argues that education systems in these countries need to use innovative pedagogies and best practices in teaching and learning to educate all citizens so that they obtain the knowledge and skills to be productive members of society. This book will contribute to the transformation of education in the Gulf countries by suggesting best practices, research outcomes and case studies from experts in the Gulf region. It has become increasingly evident in recent years that Gulf countries need to use emerging learning technologies to cater for the needs of learners and to provide maximum flexibility in learning. There is also a growing practical need to use electronic technologies, since learning materials are more widely available in electronic formats than in paper-based formats. This book focuses on the role of emerging technologies and innovative pedagogies in transforming education in six Gulf countries in the region (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman and Bahrain). With contributions from experts around the world, the book argues that the time is right for Arab Gulf countries to make the transition to electronic learning and that they need to implement the outcomes of research and adopt best practices to transform and revolutionize education to prepare learners in the Gulf region for the 21st Century. The book should be of interest to academics and students in the areas of higher education, learning technologies, education policy and education reform. It should also be of interest to educators and policymakers in the Gulf region.
  • Smart Materials for Advanced Environmental Applications

    (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2016-02-23) [Book]
    With the development of modern industry and modern economies, environmental problems, especially water pollution and water scarcity, have become the most serious global challenges. In dealing with these challenges, various kinds of functionalized materials and devices are purposefully developed, fabricated, and utilized. It is clear that smart materials have not only provided effective strategies for solving environmental problems, but have also exhibited unprecedented advantages over traditional materials by integrating multifunctions and/or processes into one advanced device/material. In this book, we will present a broad collection of bioinspired smart materials and systems that are used in environmental problem solving. The topics of these chapters span from bioinspired fog collection, self-healing materials, responsive particle-stabilized emulsions, smart draw solutions in forward osmosis, slippery coating, insightful analysis of problems and opportunities for hydrophobic surfaces applied in real conditions, to superwetting materials for oil–water separation.
  • Anionic Polymerization: Principles, Practice, Strength, Consequences and Applications

    (Springer Japan, 2015-09-01) [Book]
    This book presents these important facts: a) The mechanism of anionic polymerization, a more than 50-year challenge in polymer chemistry, has now become better understood; b) Precise synthesis of many polymers with novel architectures (triblock, multi-block, graft, exact graft, comb, cyclic, many armed stars with multi-components, dendrimer-like hyper-branched, and their structural mixed (co)polymers, etc.) have been advanced significantly; c) Based on such polymers, new morphological and self-organizing nano-objects and supra molecular assemblies have been created and widely studied and are considered nanodevices in the fields of nano science and technology; d) New high-tech and industrial applications for polymeric materials synthesized by anionic polymerization have been proposed. These remarkable developments have taken place in the last 15 years. Anionic polymerization continues to be the only truly living polymerization system (100 % termination free under appropriate conditions) and consequently the only one with unique capabilities in the synthesis of well-defined (i.e., precisely controlled molecular weight, nearly mono-disperse molecular weight distribution, structural and compositional homogeneity) complex macromolecular architectures. This book, with contributions from the world's leading specialists, will be useful for all researchers, including students, working in universities, in research organizations, and in industry.
  • Membrane Technology

    Dr. Klaus-Viktor Peinemann; Dr. Suzana Pereira Nunes; Prof. Lidietta Giorno (Wiley-VCH, 2014-07-10) [Book]
    Edited by an internationally recognized leader in the field, this third volume in the series represents the complete reference to membrane processes in the food industry. The handbook adopts a highly practical approach to this hot topic, combining the hands-on experience of the expert authors involved. They provide chapters devoted to such varied applications as dairy fractionation, electrodialysis, pressure-driven membrane processes in alcoholic beverages, membrane emulsification, contactors and bioreactors, as well as membranes for food packaging. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

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