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dc.contributor.authorChekli, Laura
dc.contributor.authorEun Kim, Jung
dc.contributor.authorEl Saliby, Ibrahim
dc.contributor.authorKim, Youngjin
dc.contributor.authorPhuntsho, Sherub
dc.contributor.authorLi, Sheng
dc.contributor.authorGhaffour, NorEddine
dc.contributor.authorLeiknes, TorOve
dc.contributor.authorKyong Shon, Ho
dc.date.accessioned2017-03-15T07:15:27Z
dc.date.available2017-03-15T07:15:27Z
dc.date.issued2017-03-10
dc.identifier.citationChekli L, Eun Kim J, El Saliby I, Kim Y, Phuntsho S, et al. (2017) Fertilizer drawn forward osmosis process for sustainable water reuse to grow hydroponic lettuce using commercial nutrient solution. Separation and Purification Technology. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2017.03.008.
dc.identifier.issn1383-5866
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.seppur.2017.03.008
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/623003
dc.description.abstractThis study investigated the sustainable reuse of wastewater using fertilizer drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) process through osmotic dilution of commercial nutrient solution for hydroponics, a widely used technique for growing plants without soil. Results from the bench-scale experiments showed that the commercial hydroponic nutrient solution (i.e. solution containing water and essential nutrients) exhibited similar performance (i.e., water flux and reverse salt flux) to other inorganic draw solutions when treating synthetic wastewater. The use of hydroponic solution is highly advantageous since it provides all the required macro- (i.e., N, P and K) and micronutrients (i.e., Ca, Mg, S, Mn, B, Zn and Mo) in a single balanced solution and can therefore be used directly after dilution without the need to add any elements. After long-term operation (i.e. up to 75% water recovery), different physical cleaning methods were tested and results showed that hydraulic flushing can effectively restore up to 75% of the initial water flux while osmotic backwashing was able to restore the initial water flux by more than 95%; illustrating the low-fouling potential of the FDFO process. Pilot-scale studies demonstrated that the FDFO process is able to produce the required nutrient concentration and final water quality (i.e., pH and conductivity) suitable for hydroponic applications. Coupling FDFO with pressure assisted osmosis (PAO) in the later stages could help in saving operational costs (i.e., energy and membrane replacement costs). Finally, the test application of nutrient solution produced by the pilot FDFO process to hydroponic lettuce showed similar growth pattern as the control without any signs of nutrient deficiency.
dc.description.sponsorshipThe research reported in this paper is part of a collaborative project between the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) and the University of Technology Sydney (UTS) and funded through a SEED Fund provided by KAUST. Support was also provided to HKS by the Australian Research Council (ARC) through Future Fellowship (FT140101208).
dc.publisherElsevier BV
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1383586617301041
dc.rightsNOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Separation and Purification Technology. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Separation and Purification Technology, [, , (2017-03-10)] DOI: 10.1016/j.seppur.2017.03.008 . © 2017. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
dc.subjectForward osmosis
dc.subjectCommercial fertilizers
dc.subjectWastewater reuse
dc.subjectHydroponics
dc.titleFertilizer drawn forward osmosis process for sustainable water reuse to grow hydroponic lettuce using commercial nutrient solution
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentEnvironmental Science and Engineering Program
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)
dc.identifier.journalSeparation and Purification Technology
dc.eprint.versionPost-print
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), City Campus, Broadway, NSW 2007, Australia
dc.contributor.institutionBotanic Gardens and Centennial Parklands, Mrs Macquarie Road, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea
kaust.personLi, Sheng
kaust.personGhaffour, Noreddine
kaust.personLeiknes, TorOve
dc.date.published-online2017-03-10
dc.date.published-print2017-06


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