Comparative assessment of single and joint effects of diuron and Irgarol 1051 on Arctic and temperate microalgae using chlorophyll a fluorescence imaging
Brown, Murray T.
KAUST DepartmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
Red Sea Research Center (RSRC)
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AbstractShip groundings and ice-breakers can cause pollution of the polar environment with antifouling biocides such as diuron and Irgarol 1051. The present study used pulse amplitude modulated fluorometry to compare single and joint toxicities of diuron and Irgarol 1051 on two freshwater taxa of microalgae (Chlorella and Chlamydomonas) originating from Arctic and temperate regions. 30min acute toxicity tests using chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence revealed that Arctic strains of microalgae were more sensitive to herbicides than their temperate counterparts. Diuron and Irgarol 1051 had equal toxicities in the Arctic species, while Irgarol 1051 was more toxic (EC50=5.55–14.70μgL−1) than diuron (EC50=12.90–>40μgL−1) in the temperate species. Toxicity assessment of various mixtures of diuron and Irgarol 1051 revealed antagonistic, additive, and synergistic effects. Our data suggest that herbicides can adversely affect photosynthesis in Arctic microalgae at relatively low levels, and their impact can increase under complex mixture conditions.
CitationKottuparambil S, Brown MT, Park J, Choi S, Lee H, et al. (2017) Comparative assessment of single and joint effects of diuron and Irgarol 1051 on Arctic and temperate microalgae using chlorophyll a fluorescence imaging. Ecological Indicators 76: 304–316. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.01.024.
SponsorsThe study was financially supported by Incheon National University (2012). Thanks are due to the Editor and the anonymous reviewers for their valuable and constructive comments.