Transcriptome and Proteome Studies Reveal Candidate Attachment Genes during the Development of the Barnacle Amphibalanus Amphitrite

Abstract
The acorn barnacle, Balanus amphitrite, is the main biofouling organism in marine environments. In the present study we profiled the transcriptome and proteome of B. amphitrite at different life stages (nauplius II, nauplius VI, and cyprid) from the Red Sea, where the average water surface temperature is 34°C and the salinity reaches 41%. We identified 65,784 expressed contigs, and a total of 1387 expressed proteins measured by quantitative proteomics. We found that osmotic stress, salt stress, hyperosmotic response and the Wnt signaling pathway were strongly up-regulated during the planktonic stage, while the MAPK pathway, lipid metabolism, and cuticle development genes were down-regulated. In the transition stage between the nauplius VI and the cyprid, genes that are involved in blood coagulation, cuticle development and eggshell formation were highly up-regulated, while the nitric oxide pathway, which stimulates the swimming and feeding response in marine invertebrates, was down-regulated. We are able to report for the first time that sound sensory system proteins are highly abundant in the nauplius VI stage, implying that these proteins are good targets for the development of new antifouling compounds. The results presented here together with the new genome-wide datasets for a non-model specie represent an important resource for the study of biofouling and development. Proteomics data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004679.

Citation
Al-Aqeel S, Ryu T, Zhang H, Chandramouli KH, Ravasi T (2016) Transcriptome and Proteome Studies Reveal Candidate Attachment Genes during the Development of the Barnacle Amphibalanus Amphitrite. Frontiers in Marine Science 3. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2016.00171.

Acknowledgements
This research was supported by the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). We thank the National Prawn Company for providing algal samples; Sridharan Govindachary (SABIC-CRI KAUST) for help with culturing and comments; the Coastal and Marine Resources Core Laboratory for sample collection; Harris Mavromatis (KAUST), Tim Wong and Dineshram (HKUST) for laboratory assistance and comments; and Yanal Ghosheh and Allan Kamau for analysis comments and assistance.

Publisher
Frontiers Media SA

Journal
Frontiers in Marine Science

DOI
10.3389/fmars.2016.00171

Additional Links
http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmars.2016.00171/full

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