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dc.contributor.authorAmy, Gary L.
dc.contributor.authorGhaffour, NorEddine
dc.contributor.authorLi, Zhenyu
dc.contributor.authorFrancis, Lijo
dc.contributor.authorValladares Linares, Rodrigo
dc.contributor.authorMissimer, Thomas
dc.contributor.authorLattemann, Sabine
dc.date.accessioned2017-01-02T08:42:38Z
dc.date.available2017-01-02T08:42:38Z
dc.date.issued2016-10-20
dc.identifier.citationAmy G, Ghaffour N, Li Z, Francis L, Linares RV, et al. (2017) Membrane-based seawater desalination: Present and future prospects. Desalination 401: 16–21. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2016.10.002.
dc.identifier.issn0011-9164
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.desal.2016.10.002
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/622218
dc.description.abstractGiven increasing regional water scarcity and that almost half of the world's population lives within 100 km of an ocean, seawater represents a virtually infinite water resource. However, its exploitation is presently limited by the significant specific energy consumption (kWh/m) required by conventional desalination technologies, further exasperated by high unit costs ($\$$/m) and environmental impacts including GHG emissions (g CO-eq/m), organism impingement/entrainment through intakes, and brine disposal through outfalls. This paper explores the state-of-the-art in present seawater desalination practice, emphasizing membrane-based technologies, while identifying future opportunities in step improvements to conventional technologies and development of emerging, potentially disruptive, technologies through advances in material science, process engineering, and system integration. In this paper, seawater reverse osmosis (RO) serves as the baseline conventional technology. The discussion extends beyond desalting processes into membrane-based salinity gradient energy production processes, which can provide an energy offset to desalination process energy requirements. The future membrane landscape in membrane-based desalination and salinity gradient energy is projected to include ultrahigh permeability RO membranes, renewable-energy driven desalination, and emerging processes including closed-circuit RO, membrane distillation, forward osmosis, pressure retarded osmosis, and reverse electrodialysis according various niche applications and/or hybrids, operating separately or in conjunction with RO.
dc.publisherElsevier BV
dc.rightsNOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Desalination. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Desalination, 20 October 2016. DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2016.10.002
dc.subjectGreening of SWRO
dc.subjectMembranes
dc.subjectSeawater desalination
dc.subjectSpecific energy consumption
dc.titleMembrane-based seawater desalination: Present and future prospects
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentCompetitive Research Funds
dc.contributor.departmentEnvironmental Science and Engineering Program
dc.contributor.departmentOCRF- Special Academic Partnership
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)
dc.identifier.journalDesalination
dc.eprint.versionPost-print
dc.contributor.institutionCollege of Engineering and Science, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 29634, United States
dc.contributor.institutionChemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 119077, Singapore
dc.contributor.institutionFlorida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, FL, 33965, United States
kaust.personAmy, Gary L.
kaust.personGhaffour, Noreddine
kaust.personLi, Zhenyu
kaust.personFrancis, Lijo
kaust.personValladares Linares, Rodrigo
kaust.personLattemann, Sabine
refterms.dateFOA2018-10-20T00:00:00Z
dc.date.published-online2016-10-20
dc.date.published-print2017-01


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