KAUST DepartmentComputer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering (CEMSE) Division
Electrical Engineering Program
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/622206
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AbstractThe III-N wide-bandgap alloys in the AlInGaN system have many important and unique electrical and optical properties which have been exploited to develop deep-ultraviolet (DUV) optical devices operating at wavelengths < 300 nm, including light-emitting diodes, optically pumped lasers, and photodetectors. In this chapter, we review some aspects of the development and current state of the art of these DUV materials and devices. We describe the growth of III-N materials in the UV region by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition as well as the properties of epitaxial layers and heterostructure devices. In addition, we discuss the simulation and design of DUV laser diodes, the processing of III-N optical devices, and the description of the current state of the art of DUV lasers and photodetectors.
CitationDetchprohm T, Li X, Shen S-C, Yoder PD, Dupuis RD (2016) III-N Wide Bandgap Deep-Ultraviolet Lasers and Photodetectors. Semiconductors and Semimetals. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.semsem.2016.09.001.
SponsorsThe work at Georgia Institute of Technology was supported over several years in part by DARPA, NSF, and the US Army Research Office. We thank the School of ECE and the College of Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology for additional support, and RDD acknowledges the continued support of the Steve W. Chaddick Endowed Chair in Electro-Optics and the Georgia Research Alliance.
JournalSemiconductors and Semimetals
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Tapering-induced enhancement of light extraction efficiency of nanowire deep ultraviolet LED by theoretical simulationsLin, Ronghui; Galan, Sergio Valdes; Sun, Haiding; Hu, Yangrui; Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Janjua, Bilal; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Li, Xiaohang (Photonics Research, The Optical Society, 2018-04-21) [Article]A nanowire (NW) structure provides an alternative scheme for deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes (DUV-LEDs) that promises high material quality and better light extraction efficiency (LEE). In this report, we investigate the influence of the tapering angle of closely packed AlGaN NWs, which is found to exist naturally in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown NW structures, on the LEE of NW DUV-LEDs. It is observed that, by having a small tapering angle, the vertical extraction is greatly enhanced for both transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) polarizations. Most notably, the vertical extraction of TM emission increased from 4.8% to 24.3%, which makes the LEE reasonably large to achieve high-performance DUV-LEDs. This is because the breaking of symmetry in the vertical direction changes the propagation of the light significantly to allow more coupling into radiation modes. Finally, we introduce errors to the NW positions to show the advantages of the tapered NW structures can be projected to random closely packed NW arrays. The results obtained in this paper can provide guidelines for designing efficient NW DUV-LEDs.
Unleashing the potential of molecular beam epitaxy grown AlGaN-based ultraviolet-spectrum nanowires devicesMin, Jungwook; Priante, Davide; Tangi, Malleswararao; Liu, Guangyu; Kang, Chun Hong; Prabaswara, Aditya; Zhao, Chao; Al-Maghrabi, Latifah; Alaskar, Yazeed; Albadri, Abdulrahman M.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S. (Journal of Nanophotonics, SPIE-Intl Soc Optical Eng, 2018-07-12) [Article]There have been recent research advances in AlGaN-based self-assembled nanowires (NWs) as building blocks for ultraviolet (UV) optoelectronics grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. We review the basic growth kinetics on various foundry-compatible-metal/silicon-based substrates and the epistructure design for UV devices. We highlight the use of diffusion-barrier-metal thin film on silicon substrate as a solution to enhance device performance. NWs offer the opportunity to mitigate the detrimental quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE), which lowers the recombination rate thereby reducing the device efficiency. On the other hand, the polarization-induced doping from the graded composition along NWs can be advantageous for eluding the inefficient doping in AlGaN-based UV devices. Sidewall surface states and the associate passivation treatment, as well as the use of ultrafast electron-microscopy characterization, are crucial investigations in shedding light on device performance under the influence of surface dangling bonds. For investigating the electrical performance of individual NWs and NWs light-emitting diode as a single entity, recent reports based on conductive atomic force microscopy measurements provide fast-prototyping in-process pass-fail evaluation and a means of improving growth for high-performance devices. Stress tests of NWs devices, crucial for reliable operation, are also discussed. Beyond applications in LEDs, an AlGaN-based NWs solar-blind photodetector demonstrated leveraging on the dislocation-free active region, reduced QCSE, enhanced light absorption, and tunable-composition features. The review opens pathways and offers insights for practical realization of AlGaN-based axial NWs devices on scalable and low-cost silicon substrates.
Nitride-based Quantum-Confined Structures for Ultraviolet-Visible Optical Devices on Silicon SubstratesJanjua, Bilal (2017-04) [Dissertation]
Advisor: Ooi, Boon S.
Committee members: Zhang, Xixiang; Li, Xiaohang; Parbrook, PeterIII–V nitride quantum-confined structures embedded in nanowires (NWs), also known as quantum-disks-in-nanowires (Qdisks-in-NWs), have recently emerged as a new class of nanoscale materials exhibiting outstanding properties for optoelectronic devices and systems. It is promising for circumventing the technology limitation of existing planar epitaxy devices, which are bounded by the lattice-, crystal-structure-, and thermal- matching conditions. This work presents significant advances in the growth of good quality GaN, InGaN and AlGaN Qdisks-in-NWs based on careful optimization of the growth parameters, coupled with a meticulous layer structure and active region design. The NWs were grown, catalyst-free, using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) on silicon (Si) substrates. A 2-step growth scheme was developed to achieve high areal density, dislocation free and vertically aligned NWs on Ti/Si substrates. Numerical modeling of the NWs structures, using the nextnano3 software, showed reduced polarization fields, and, in the presence of Qdisks, exhibited improved quantum-confinement; thus contributing to high carrier radiative-recombination rates. As a result, based on the growth and device structure optimization, the technologically challenging orange and yellow NWs light emitting devices (LEDs) targeting the ‘green-yellow’ gap were demonstrated on scalable, foundry compatible, and low-cost Ti coated Si substrates. The NWs work was also extended to LEDs emitting in the ultraviolet (UV) range with niche applications in environmental cleaning, UV-curing, medicine, and lighting. In this work, we used a Ti (100 nm) interlayer and Qdisks to achieve good quality AlGaN based UV-A (320 - 400 nm) device. To address the issue of UV-absorbing polymer, used in the planarization process, we developed a pendeo-epitaxy technique, for achieving an ultra-thin coalescence of the top p-GaN contact layer, for a self-planarized Qdisks-in-NWs UV-B (280 – 320 nm) LED grown on silicon. This process constitutes a significant advancement in simplifying the UV-B and UV-C fabrication process favoring light extraction. Addressing the issue of poor white light quality in the conventional blue laser diode (LD) and YAG:Ce3+ technology, a number of applications related investigations was conducted. Notably, the orange and yellow emitting InGaN/GaN Qdisks-in-NWs LEDs were implemented as an “active phosphor” to achieve intensity- and bandwidth-tunability for high color-quality solid-state lighting.