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dc.contributor.authorPrest, E. I.
dc.contributor.authorWeissbrodt, D. G.
dc.contributor.authorHammes, F.
dc.contributor.authorVan Loosdrecht, M. C M
dc.contributor.authorVrouwenvelder, Johannes S.
dc.date.accessioned2016-11-21T13:49:24Z
dc.date.available2016-11-21T13:49:24Z
dc.date.issued2016-10-28
dc.identifier.citationPrest EI, Weissbrodt DG, Hammes F, van Loosdrecht MCM, Vrouwenvelder JS (2016) Long-Term Bacterial Dynamics in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System. PLOS ONE 11: e0164445. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0164445.
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0164445
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/621852
dc.description.abstractLarge seasonal variations in microbial drinking water quality can occur in distribution networks, but are often not taken into account when evaluating results from short-term water sampling campaigns. Temporal dynamics in bacterial community characteristics were investigated during a two-year drinking water monitoring campaign in a full-scale distribution system operating without detectable disinfectant residual. A total of 368 water samples were collected on a biweekly basis at the water treatment plant (WTP) effluent and at one fixed location in the drinking water distribution network (NET). The samples were analysed for heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), Aeromonas plate counts, adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP) concentrations, and flow cytometric (FCM) total and intact cell counts (TCC, ICC), water temperature, pH, conductivity, total organic carbon (TOC) and assimilable organic carbon (AOC). Multivariate analysis of the large dataset was performed to explore correlative trends between microbial and environmental parameters. The WTP effluent displayed considerable seasonal variations in TCC (from 90 × 103 cells mL-1 in winter time up to 455 × 103 cells mL-1 in summer time) and in bacterial ATP concentrations (<1–3.6 ng L-1), which were congruent with water temperature variations. These fluctuations were not detected with HPC and Aeromonas counts. The water in the network was predominantly influenced by the characteristics of the WTP effluent. The increase in ICC between the WTP effluent and the network sampling location was small (34 × 103 cells mL-1 on average) compared to seasonal fluctuations in ICC in the WTP effluent. Interestingly, the extent of bacterial growth in the NET was inversely correlated to AOC concentrations in the WTP effluent (Pearson’s correlation factor r = -0.35), and positively correlated with water temperature (r = 0.49). Collecting a large dataset at high frequency over a two year period enabled the characterization of previously undocumented seasonal dynamics in the distribution network. Moreover, high-resolution FCM data enabled prediction of bacterial cell concentrations at specific water temperatures and time of year. The study highlights the need to systematically assess temporal fluctuations in parallel to spatial dynamics for individual drinking water distribution systems.
dc.description.sponsorshipEvides Waterbedrijf (Rotterdam Area, The Netherlands) is acknowledged for assistance in the sampling and analysis campaign. Furthermore, we thank Elodie Loubineaud and Fezeka Sotywambe for their help in the water analysis and Cristian Picioreanu for his support on dataset interpolation.
dc.publisherPublic Library of Science (PLoS)
dc.relation.urlhttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0164445
dc.rightsThis is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.titleLong-Term Bacterial Dynamics in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentEnvironmental Science and Engineering Program
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)
dc.identifier.journalPLOS ONE
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDF
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Biotechnology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Van der Maasweg 9, 2629 HZ Delft, The Netherlands
dc.contributor.institutionCenter for Microbial Communities, Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 7, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark
dc.contributor.institutionEawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, CH-8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
dc.contributor.institutionWetsus, European Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Oostergoweg 9, 8911 MA Leeuwarden, The Netherlands
kaust.personVrouwenvelder, Johannes S.
refterms.dateFOA2018-06-14T02:27:20Z


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This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.