Probabilistic Inference on Multiple Normalized Signal Profiles from Next Generation Sequencing: Transcription Factor Binding Sites
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AbstractWith the prevalence of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with sequencing (ChIP-Seq) technology, massive ChIP-Seq data has been accumulated. The ChIP-Seq technology measures the genome-wide occupancy of DNA-binding proteins in vivo. It is well-known that different DNA-binding protein occupancies may result in a gene being regulated in different conditions (e.g. different cell types). To fully understand a gene's function, it is essential to develop probabilistic models on multiple ChIP-Seq profiles for deciphering the gene transcription causalities. In this work, we propose and describe two probabilistic models. Assuming the conditional independence of different DNA-binding proteins' occupancies, the first method (SignalRanker) is developed as an intuitive method for ChIP-Seq genome-wide signal profile inference. Unfortunately, such an assumption may not always hold in some gene regulation cases. Thus, we propose and describe another method (FullSignalRanker) which does not make the conditional independence assumption. The proposed methods are compared with other existing methods on ENCODE ChIP-Seq datasets, demonstrating its regression and classification ability. The results suggest that FullSignalRanker is the best-performing method for recovering the signal ranks on the promoter and enhancer regions. In addition, FullSignalRanker is also the best-performing method for peak sequence classification. We envision that SignalRanker and FullSignalRanker will become important in the era of next generation sequencing. FullSignalRanker program is available on the following website: http://www.cs.toronto.edu/∼wkc/FullSignalRanker/ © 2015 IEEE.
CitationWong K-C, Peng C, Li Y (2015) Probabilistic Inference on Multiple Normalized Signal Profiles from Next Generation Sequencing: Transcription Factor Binding Sites. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics 12: 1416–1428. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCBB.2015.2424421.
SponsorsThe authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their time. The authors would also like to thank the ENCODE consortium for making their data publicly available. The work described in this paper was fully supported by a grant from City University of Hong Kong (Project No. 7200444/CS). K.-C. Wong is the corresponding author.