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dc.contributor.authorRoux, Simon
dc.contributor.authorBrum, Jennifer R
dc.contributor.authorDutilh, Bas E.
dc.contributor.authorSunagawa, Shinichi
dc.contributor.authorDuhaime, Melissa B
dc.contributor.authorLoy, Alexander
dc.contributor.authorPoulos, Bonnie T
dc.contributor.authorSolonenko, Natalie
dc.contributor.authorLara, Elena
dc.contributor.authorPoulain, Julie
dc.contributor.authorPesant, Stephane
dc.contributor.authorKandels-Lewis, Stefanie
dc.contributor.authorDimier, Celine
dc.contributor.authorPicheral, Marc
dc.contributor.authorSearson, Sarah
dc.contributor.authorCruaud, Corinne
dc.contributor.authorAlberti, Adriana
dc.contributor.authorDuarte, Carlos M.
dc.contributor.authorGasol, Josep M M
dc.contributor.authorVaque, Dolors
dc.contributor.authorBork, Peer
dc.contributor.authorAcinas, Silvia G
dc.contributor.authorWincker, Patrick
dc.contributor.authorSullivan, Matthew B
dc.identifier.citationRoux S, Brum JR, Dutilh BE, Sunagawa S, et al. (2016) Ecogenomics and potential biogeochemical impacts of globally abundant ocean viruses. Nature 537: 689–693. Available:
dc.description.abstractOcean microbes drive biogeochemical cycling on a global scale. However, this cycling is constrained by viruses that affect community composition, metabolic activity, and evolutionary trajectories. Owing to challenges with the sampling and cultivation of viruses, genome-level viral diversity remains poorly described and grossly understudied, with less than 1% of observed surface-ocean viruses known. Here we assemble complete genomes and large genomic fragments from both surface-and deep-ocean viruses sampled during the Tara Oceans and Malaspina research expeditions, and analyse the resulting â global ocean virome' dataset to present a global map of abundant, double-stranded DNA viruses complete with genomic and ecological contexts. A total of 15,222 epipelagic and mesopelagic viral populations were identified, comprising 867 viral clusters (defined as approximately genus-level groups). This roughly triples the number of known ocean viral populations and doubles the number of candidate bacterial and archaeal virus genera, providing a near-complete sampling of epipelagic communities at both the population and viral-cluster level. We found that 38 of the 867 viral clusters were locally or globally abundant, together accounting for nearly half of the viral populations in any global ocean virome sample. While two-thirds of these clusters represent newly described viruses lacking any cultivated representative, most could be computationally linked to dominant, ecologically relevant microbial hosts. Moreover, we identified 243 viral-encoded auxiliary metabolic genes, of which only 95 were previously known. Deeper analyses of four of these auxiliary metabolic genes (dsrC, soxYZ, P-II (also known as glnB) and amoC) revealed that abundant viruses may directly manipulate sulfur and nitrogen cycling throughout the epipelagic ocean. This viral catalog and functional analyses provide a necessary foundation for the meaningful integration of viruses into ecosystem models where they act as key players in nutrient cycling and trophic networks. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature.
dc.description.sponsorshipWe thank J. Weitz for advice on statistics, C. Pelikan for help with the DsrAB phylogenetic tree, C. Dahl for discussion regarding DsrC function, and members of the Sullivan and the V. Rich laboratories for suggestions and comments on this manuscript. We acknowledge support from UA high-performance computing and the Ohio Supercomputer Center. Sponsors and support for Tara Oceans and Malaspina expeditions are listed in the Supplementary Information. This viral research was funded by a National Science Foundation grant (1536989) and Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation grants (3790, 2631) to M.B.S., and the French Ministry of Research and Government through the ‘Investissements d’Avenir’ program OCEANOMICS (ANR-11-BTBR-0008) and France Genomique (ANR-10-INBS-09-08). Virus researchers were partially supported by the Water, Environmental and Energy Solutions Initiative and the Ecosystem Genomics Institute (S.R.), the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research Vidi grant 864.14.004 and CAPES/BRASIL (B.E.D.), and the Austrian Science Fund (project P25111-B22, A.L.). Sequencing was provided by Genoscope (Tara Oceans) and DOE JGI (Malaspina). All authors approved the final manuscript. This article is contribution number 43 of the Tara Oceans expedition.
dc.publisherSpringer Nature
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to Nature
dc.titleEcogenomics and potential biogeochemical impacts of globally abundant ocean viruses
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentMarine Science Program
dc.contributor.departmentRed Sea Research Center (RSRC)
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Microbiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Marine Biology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
dc.contributor.institutionCentre for Molecular and Biomolecular Informatics, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands
dc.contributor.institutionTheoretical Biology and Bioinformatics, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Biology, Institute of Microbiology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
dc.contributor.institutionStructural and Computational Biology, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States
dc.contributor.institutionAustrian Polar Research Institute, Vienna, Austria
dc.contributor.institutionDivision of Microbial Ecology, Department of Microbiology and Ecosystem Science, Research Network Chemistry Meets Microbiology, Vienna, Austria
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AR, United States
dc.contributor.institutionInstitute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Venezia, Italy
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Marine Biology and Oceanography, Institut de Ciencies Del Mar, CSIC, Barcelona, Spain
dc.contributor.institutionMARUM, Bremen University, Bremen, Germany
dc.contributor.institutionPANGAEA, Data Publisher for Earth and Environmental Science, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Research European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
dc.contributor.institutionInstitut de Biologie de LfEcole Normale Superieure, Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris Sciences et Lettres Research University, Paris, France
dc.contributor.institutionSorbonne Universite.s, UPMC Universite, Roscoff, France
dc.contributor.institutionCNRS, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Roscoff, France
dc.contributor.institutionSorbonne Universites, UPMC Universite, Villefranche-sur-mer, France
dc.contributor.institutionCNRS, Laboratoire d'Oceanographie de Villefranche, Observatoire Oceanologique, Villefranche-sur-mer, France
dc.contributor.institutionCEA, Institut de Genomique, Evry, France
dc.contributor.institutionMediterranean Institute of Advanced Studies, CSIC, Esporles, Mallorca, Spain for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany
dc.contributor.institutionUniversite DfEvry, Evry, France
dc.contributor.institutionCNRS, Evry, France
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Civil, Environmental and Geodetic Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States
dc.contributor.affiliationKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)
kaust.personDuarte, Carlos M.

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