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dc.contributor.authorEguíluz, Victor M.
dc.contributor.authorFernández-Gracia, Juan
dc.contributor.authorIrigoien, Xabier
dc.contributor.authorDuarte, Carlos M.
dc.date.accessioned2016-08-10T12:18:32Z
dc.date.available2016-08-10T12:18:32Z
dc.date.issued2016-08-01
dc.identifier.citationA quantitative assessment of Arctic shipping in 2010–2014 2016, 6:30682 Scientific Reports
dc.identifier.issn2045-2322
dc.identifier.pmid27477878
dc.identifier.doi10.1038/srep30682
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/618215
dc.description.abstractRapid loss of sea ice is opening up the Arctic Ocean to shipping, a practice that is forecasted to increase rapidly by 2050 when many models predict that the Arctic Ocean will largely be free of ice toward the end of summer. These forecasts carry considerable uncertainty because Arctic shipping was previously considered too sparse to allow for adequate validation. Here, we provide quantitative evidence that the extent of Arctic shipping in the period 2011–2014 is already significant and that it is concentrated (i) in the Norwegian and Barents Seas, and (ii) predominantly accessed via the Northeast and Northwest Passages. Thick ice along the forecasted direct trans-Arctic route was still present in 2014, preventing transit. Although Arctic shipping remains constrained by the extent of ice coverage, during every September, this coverage is at a minimum, allowing the highest levels of shipping activity. Access to Arctic resources, particularly fisheries, is the most important driver of Arctic shipping thus far.
dc.description.sponsorshipThe research reported in this Article was supported by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), MINECO (Spain), and FEDER (EU) through project MODASS (FIS2011-24785). We thank Juan Ignacio Cicuendez Pérez and Simon Chesworth for technical assistance.
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherSpringer Nature
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.nature.com/articles/srep30682
dc.rightsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.titleA quantitative assessment of Arctic shipping in 2010–2014
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentMarine Science Program
dc.contributor.departmentRed Sea Research Center (RSRC)
dc.identifier.journalScientific Reports
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDF
dc.contributor.institutionInstituto de Física Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos IFISC (CSIC-UIB), E07122, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
dc.contributor.institutionHarvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA, 02115, US
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of Tromsø, Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway
dc.contributor.affiliationKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)
kaust.personIrigoien, Xabier
kaust.personDuarte, Carlos M.
refterms.dateFOA2018-06-13T13:19:18Z
dc.date.published-online2016-08-01
dc.date.published-print2016-11


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