Probing the doping mechanisms and electrical properties of Al, Ga and In doped ZnO prepared by spray pyrolysis
KAUST DepartmentPhysical Sciences and Engineering (PSE) Division
Materials Science and Engineering Program
Materials Science and Engineering (MSE)
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AbstractThe measured structural, optical and electrical properties of Al, Ga and In doped ZnO films deposited using spray pyrolysis are reported over the doping range 0.1 - 3 atomic percent (at. %). Over the entire doping series highly transparent, polycrystalline thin films are prepared. Using the AC Hall effect we probe the electronic properties of our doped films separating the impact of doping on the measured charge carrier concentrations and Hall mobility, with an emphasis on the low doping, < 1 at. %, range. In this doping range highly resistive films are formed and we highlight AC Hall as a reliable and highly reproducible technique for analysing the doping mechanism. The implementation of a simple, post-deposition heat treatment of our AZO films creates typical films with charge carrier concentrations exceeding > 1019 cm-3 and electron mobilities over 10 cm2/Vs. We describe in detail the nature of the defect chemistry and the role of intrinsic defects, particularly traps, and show that despite significant variations in dopant species and grain boundary concentrations that the defect chemistry dominates the electrical characteristics.
CitationProbing the doping mechanisms and electrical properties of Al, Ga and In doped ZnO prepared by spray pyrolysis 2016 J. Mater. Chem. C
SponsorsThe authors gratefully acknowledge the KAUST-Imperial College Academic Excellence Alliance for financial support. The authors thank Dr D Payne (Imperial) for useful discussions in revision of the manuscript.
PublisherRoyal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
JournalJ. Mater. Chem. C