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This work was supported by the Stanford University KAUST center of Excellency and a grant from the United State Airforce. X. Li thanks the Chinese National Natural Science Foundation (50672041) for a grant to support a 6 months leave at the EPFL during which time his contribution to this work was performed. We thank Dr. Robin Humphry-Baker for fruitful discussions and Pascal Comte for the TiO2 film preparations.