Novel Size and Surface Oxide Effects in Silicon Nanowires as Lithium Battery Anodes
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AbstractWith its high specific capacity, silicon is a promising anode material for high-energy lithium-ion batteries, but volume expansion and fracture during lithium reaction have prevented implementation. Si nanostructures have shown resistance to fracture during cycling, but the critical effects of nanostructure size and native surface oxide on volume expansion and cycling performance are not understood. Here, we use an ex situ transmission electron microscopy technique to observe the same Si nanowires before and after lithiation and have discovered the impacts of size and surface oxide on volume expansion. For nanowires with native SiO2, the surface oxide can suppress the volume expansion during lithiation for nanowires with diameters <∼50 nm. Finite element modeling shows that the oxide layer can induce compressive hydrostatic stress that could act to limit the extent of lithiation. The understanding developed herein of how volume expansion and extent of lithiation can depend on nanomaterial structure is important for the improvement of Si-based anodes. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
CitationMcDowell MT, Lee SW, Ryu I, Wu H, Nix WD, et al. (2011) Novel Size and Surface Oxide Effects in Silicon Nanowires as Lithium Battery Anodes. Nano Lett 11: 4018–4025. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl202630n.
SponsorsJ.W.C. acknowledges the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Korean Government (MEST) for financial support through the Secondary Battery Program (NRT-2010-0029031) and the World Class University Program for financial support (R-31-2008-000-10055-0). Y.C. acknowledges support from the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) Investigator Award (No. KUS-11-001-12). A portion of this work is supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, Subcontract No. 6951379 under the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Program. Additionally, a portion of this work is supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under contract DE-AC02-76SF0051 through the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory LDRD project. S.W.L. acknowledges support from KAUST (Award No. KUK-F1-038-02). M.T.M. acknowledges support from the Chevron Stanford Graduate Fellowship, the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship, and the National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship. I.R. and W.D.N. gratefully acknowledge support the Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FG02-04ER46163). A portion of this work is supported by the Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion (CNEEC) at Stanford University, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001060.
PublisherAmerican Chemical Society (ACS)
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