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dc.contributor.authorKneeland, J.
dc.contributor.authorHughen, K.
dc.contributor.authorCervino, J.
dc.contributor.authorHauff, B.
dc.contributor.authorEglinton, T.
dc.date.accessioned2016-02-25T13:35:07Z
dc.date.available2016-02-25T13:35:07Z
dc.date.issued2013-08-30
dc.identifier.citationKneeland J, Hughen K, Cervino J, Hauff B, Eglinton T (2013) Lipid biomarkers in Symbiodinium dinoflagellates: new indicators of thermal stress. Coral Reefs 32: 923–934. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00338-013-1076-3.
dc.identifier.issn0722-4028
dc.identifier.issn1432-0975
dc.identifier.doi10.1007/s00338-013-1076-3
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/598723
dc.description.abstractLipid content and fatty acid profiles of corals and their dinoflagellate endosymbionts are known to vary in response to high-temperature stress. To better understand the heat-stress response in these symbionts, we investigated cultures of Symbiodinium goreauii type C1 and Symbiodinium sp. clade subtype D1 grown under a range of temperatures and durations. The predominant lipids produced by Symbiodinium are palmitic (C16) and stearic (C18) saturated fatty acids and their unsaturated analogs, the polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, n-3; DHA), and a variety of sterols. Prolonged exposure to high temperature causes the relative amount of unsaturated acids within the C18 fatty acids in Symbiodinium tissue to decrease. Thermal stress also causes a decrease in abundance of fatty acids relative to sterols, as well as the more specific ratio of DHA to an algal 4-methyl sterol. These shifts in fatty acid unsaturation and fatty acid-to-sterol ratios are common to both types C1 and D1, but the apparent thermal threshold of lipid changes is lower for type C1. This work indicates that ratios among free fatty acids and sterols in Symbiodinium can be used as sensitive indicators of thermal stress. If the Symbiodinium lipid stress response is unchanged in hospite, the algal heat-stress biomarkers we have identified could be measured to detect thermal stress within the coral holobiont. These results provide new insights into the potential role of lipids in the overall Symbiodinium thermal stress response. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
dc.description.sponsorshipDaniel Montlucon and Nick Drenzek assisted with lipid analyses. This research was supported by Award No. USA 00002 to K. Hughen made by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). This manuscript benefitted significantly from the helpful comments of two anonymous reviewers.
dc.publisherSpringer Nature
dc.subjectFatty acid unsaturation
dc.subjectLipid biomarkers
dc.subjectSymbiodinium
dc.subjectThermal sensitivity
dc.subjectThermal stress
dc.titleLipid biomarkers in Symbiodinium dinoflagellates: new indicators of thermal stress
dc.typeArticle
dc.identifier.journalCoral Reefs
dc.contributor.institutionWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, United States
dc.contributor.institutionMichigan State University, East Lansing, United States
dc.contributor.institutionEidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
kaust.grant.numberUSA 00002
dc.date.published-online2013-08-30
dc.date.published-print2013-12


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