Emerging forward osmosis (FO) technologies and challenges ahead for clean water and clean energy applications
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AbstractThe purpose of this short review is to share our understanding and perspectives with the chemical, environmental, water and osmotic power communities on FO processes in order to conduct meaningful R & D and develop effective and sustainable FO technologies for clean water and clean energy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
CitationChung T-S, Li X, Ong RC, Ge Q, Wang H, et al. (2012) Emerging forward osmosis (FO) technologies and challenges ahead for clean water and clean energy applications. Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering 1: 246–257. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coche.2012.07.004.
SponsorsThis research was funded by the Singapore National Research Foundation under its Competitive Research Program for the project entitled, “Advanced FO Membranes and Membrane Systems for Wastewater Treatment, Water Reuse and Seawater Desalination” (grant numbers: R-279-000-336-281 and R-279-000-339-281). The authors also thank Miss Sui Zhang, Dr. Jincai Su, Dr. Natalia Widjojo, Miss Sicong Chen, Miss Yue Cui for their help and suggestions. Special thanks are due to BASF, Eastman Chemicals and Mitsui Chemicals for their financial supports as well as Prof. Donald R. Paul, University of Texas at Austin, Dr. J.J. Qin, Public Utilities Board (PUB, Singapore), Prof. D. Bhattacharyya, University of Kentucky, Dr. Subhas Sikdar, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, US EPA, Prof. Gary Amy, KAUST as well as the editorial team of COCHE (Prof. Sirkar and Prof. Agrawal) for their valuable suggestions.