Atomic Layer Deposition of CdS Quantum Dots for Solid-State Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells

Type
Article

Authors
Brennan, Thomas P.
Ardalan, Pendar
Lee, Han-Bo-Ram
Bakke, Jonathan R.
Ding, I-Kang
McGehee, Michael D.
Bent, Stacey F.

Online Publication Date
2011-10-04

Print Publication Date
2011-11

Date
2011-10-04

Abstract
Functioning quantum dot (QD) sensitized solar cells have been fabricated using the vacuum deposition technique atomic layer deposition (ALD). Utilizing the incubation period of CdS growth by ALD on TiO 2, we are able to grow QDs of adjustable size which act as sensitizers for solid-state QDsensitized solar cells (ssQDSSC). The size of QDs, studied with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), varied with the number of ALD cycles from 1-10 nm. Photovoltaic devices with the QDs were fabricated and characterized using a ssQDSSC device architecture with 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p methoxyphenylamine) 9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) as the solid-state hole conductor. The ALD approach described here can be applied to fabrication of quantum-confined structures for a variety of applications, including solar electricity and solar fuels. Because ALD provides the ability to deposit many materials in very high aspect ratio substrates, this work introduces a strategy by which material and optical properties of QD sensitizers may be adjusted not only by the size of the particles but also in the future by the composition. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Citation
Brennan TP, Ardalan P, Lee H-B-R, Bakke JR, Ding I-K, et al. (2011) Atomic Layer Deposition of CdS Quantum Dots for Solid-State Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells. Adv Energy Mater 1: 1169–1175. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201100363.

Acknowledgements
This publication was based on work supported by the Center for Advanced Molecular Photovoltaics (Award No. KUS-C1-015-21), made by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). The development of the CdS ALD process was supported as part of the Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award No. DE-SC0001060. T. P. B. is supported by an Albion Walter Hewlett Fellowship. We would like to thank the Stanford Nanocharacterization Laboratory (SNL) staff and the staff of the Center for Polymer Interfaces and Macromolecular Assemblies (CPIMA) for their support.

Publisher
Wiley

Journal
Advanced Energy Materials

DOI
10.1002/aenm.201100363

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