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dc.contributor.authorXu, Jixian
dc.contributor.authorBuin, Andrei
dc.contributor.authorIp, Alexander H
dc.contributor.authorLi, Wei
dc.contributor.authorVoznyy, Oleksandr
dc.contributor.authorComin, Riccardo
dc.contributor.authorYuan, Mingjian
dc.contributor.authorJeon, Seokmin
dc.contributor.authorNing, Zhijun
dc.contributor.authorMcDowell, Jeffrey J
dc.contributor.authorKanjanaboos, Pongsakorn
dc.contributor.authorSun, Jon-Paul
dc.contributor.authorLan, Xinzheng
dc.contributor.authorQuan, Li Na
dc.contributor.authorKim, Dong Ha
dc.contributor.authorHill, Ian G
dc.contributor.authorMaksymovych, Peter
dc.contributor.authorSargent, Edward H.
dc.date.accessioned2016-02-21T08:51:05Z
dc.date.available2016-02-21T08:51:05Z
dc.date.issued2015-05-08
dc.identifier.citationXu J, Buin A, Ip AH, Li W, Voznyy O, et al. (2015) Perovskite–fullerene hybrid materials suppress hysteresis in planar diodes. Nat Comms 6: 7081. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8081.
dc.identifier.issn2041-1723
dc.identifier.pmid25953105
dc.identifier.doi10.1038/ncomms8081
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/596808
dc.description.abstractSolution-processed planar perovskite devices are highly desirable in a wide variety of optoelectronic applications; however, they are prone to hysteresis and current instabilities. Here we report the first perovskite-PCBM hybrid solid with significantly reduced hysteresis and recombination loss achieved in a single step. This new material displays an efficient electrically coupled microstructure: PCBM is homogeneously distributed throughout the film at perovskite grain boundaries. The PCBM passivates the key PbI3(-) antisite defects during the perovskite self-assembly, as revealed by theory and experiment. Photoluminescence transient spectroscopy proves that the PCBM phase promotes electron extraction. We showcase this mixed material in planar solar cells that feature low hysteresis and enhanced photovoltage. Using conductive AFM studies, we reveal the memristive properties of perovskite films. We close by positing that PCBM, by tying up both halide-rich antisites and unincorporated halides, reduces electric field-induced anion migration that may give rise to hysteresis and unstable diode behaviour.
dc.description.sponsorshipThis publication is based in part on work supported by Award KUS-11-009-21, made by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), by the Ontario Research Fund-Research Excellence Program, and by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada. Computations were performed on the GPC supercomputer at the SciNet HPC Consortium. SciNet is funded by: the Canada Foundation for Innovation under the auspices of Compute Canada; the Government of Ontario; Ontario Research Fund-Research Excellence; and the University of Toronto. We thank Peter Brodersen from Surface Interface Ontario for SIMS measurements. A portion of this research was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility. L.N.Q. and D.H.K. acknowledge the financial support by National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Korean Government (2014R1A2A1A09005656). We thank Pengfei Li from the Department of Chemistry at the University of Toronto for help with time-of-flight mass spectrometry measurements.
dc.publisherSpringer Nature
dc.rightsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.titlePerovskite-fullerene hybrid materials suppress hysteresis in planar diodes.
dc.typeArticle
dc.identifier.journalNature Communications
dc.identifier.pmcidPMC4432582
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4, Canada.
dc.contributor.institutionCenter for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA.
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Room 319, Dunn Building, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2, Canada.
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, 52, Ewhayeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-750, Korea.
kaust.grant.numberKUS-11-009-21
refterms.dateFOA2018-06-13T14:09:26Z


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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit