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dc.contributor.authorPacheco Oreamuno, Federico
dc.contributor.authorSougrat, Rachid
dc.contributor.authorReinhard, Martin
dc.contributor.authorLeckie, James O.
dc.contributor.authorPinnau, Ingo
dc.date.accessioned2015-11-05T08:53:43Z
dc.date.available2015-11-05T08:53:43Z
dc.date.issued2015-11-04
dc.identifier.citation3D visualization of the internal nanostructure of polyamide thin films in RO membranes 2015 Journal of Membrane Science
dc.identifier.issn03767388
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.memsci.2015.10.061
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/581796
dc.description.abstractThe front and back surfaces of fully aromatic polyamide thin films isolated from reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were characterized by TEM, SEM and AFM. The front surfaces were relatively rough showing polyamide protuberances of different sizes and shapes; the back surfaces were all consistently smoother with very similar granular textures formed by polyamide nodules of 20–50 nm. Occasional pore openings of approximately the same size as the nodules were observed on the back surfaces. Because traditional microscopic imaging techniques provide limited information about the internal morphology of the thin films, TEM tomography was used to create detailed 3D visualizations that allowed the examination of any section of the thin film volume. These tomograms confirmed the existence of numerous voids within the thin films and revealed structural characteristics that support the water permeance difference between brackish water (BWRO) and seawater (SWRO) RO membranes. Consistent with a higher water permeance, the thin film of the BWRO membrane ESPA3 contained relatively more voids and thinner sections of polyamide than the SWRO membrane SWC3. According to the tomograms, most voids originate near the back surface and many extend all the way to the front surface shaping the polyamide protuberances. Although it is possible for the internal voids to be connected to the outside through the pore openings on the back surface, it was verified that some of these voids comprise nanobubbles that are completely encapsulated by polyamide. TEM tomography is a powerful technique for investigating the internal nanostructure of polyamide thin films. A comprehensive knowledge of the nanostructural distribution of voids and polyamide sections within the thin film may lead to a better understanding of mass transport and rejection mechanisms in RO membranes.
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherElsevier BV
dc.relation.urlhttp://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S037673881530291X
dc.rightsNOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Membrane Science. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Membrane Science, 2 November 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.memsci.2015.10.061
dc.subjectTEM
dc.subjectTomography
dc.subjectPolyamide thin film
dc.subjectPolyamide nanostructure
dc.subjectVoids
dc.title3D visualization of the internal nanostructure of polyamide thin films in RO membranes
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentAdvanced Membranes and Porous Materials Research Center
dc.contributor.departmentChemical Engineering Program
dc.contributor.departmentImaging and Characterization Core Lab
dc.contributor.departmentPhysical Science and Engineering (PSE) Division
dc.identifier.journalJournal of Membrane Science
dc.eprint.versionPost-print
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Jerry Yang & Akiko Yamazaki Environment & Energy Building, 473 Via Ortega, Stanford, CA 94305-4020, United States
dc.contributor.affiliationKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)
kaust.personPacheco Oreamuno, Federico
kaust.personSougrat, Rachid
kaust.personPinnau, Ingo
refterms.dateFOA2017-11-02T00:00:00Z
dc.date.published-online2015-11-04
dc.date.published-print2016-03


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