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  • Organic phosphors with bright triplet excitons for efficient X-ray-excited luminescence

    Wang, Xiao; Shi, Huifang; Ma, Huili; Ye, Wenpeng; Song, Lulu; Zan, Jie; Yao, Xiaokang; Ou, Xiangyu; Yang, Guohui; Zhao, Zhu; Singh, Manjeet; Lin, Chongyang; Wang, He; Jia, Wenyong; Wang, Qian; Zhi, Jiahuan; Dong, Chaomin; Jiang, Xueyan; Tang, Yongan; Xie, Xiaoji; Yang, Yang (Michael); Wang, Jianpu; Chen, Qiushui; Wang, Yu; Yang, Huanghao; Zhang, Guoqing; An, Zhongfu; Liu, Xiaogang; Huang, Wei (Nature Photonics, Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-01-11) [Article]
    Materials that exhibit X-ray-excited luminescence have great potential in radiation detection, security inspection, biomedical applications and X-ray astronomy1,2,3,4,5. However, high-performance materials are almost exclusively limited to ceramic scintillators, which are typically prepared under high temperatures6. Herein we report metal-free organic phosphors based on a molecular design that supports efficient triplet exciton harvesting to enhance radioluminescence. These organic scintillators exhibit a detection limit of 33 nGy s–1, which is 167 times lower than the standard dosage for X-ray medical examination and we demonstrate their potential application in X-ray radiography. These findings provide a fundamental design principle and new route for the creation of promising alternatives to incumbent inorganic scintillators. Furthermore, they offer new opportunities for development of flexible, stretchable X-ray detectors and imagers for non-destructive radiography testing and medical imaging.
  • Design of Deployment Strategies to Monitor the Movement of Animals with Passive Electronic Devices

    Kazimierski, Laila D.; Rodríguez, J. P.; Eguíluz, V. M. (Sensors, MDPI AG, 2021-01-06) [Article]
    Current animal monitoring systems have improved our knowledge of quantitative animal ecology. There are many electronic tracking technologies such as VHF/UHF telemetry, light-level geolocation, ARGOS satellite telemetry and GPS tracking. To reach the desired level of information retrieval requires the planning of adequate equipment effort and coverage, which depends on the properties of the system. We propose an equipment arrangement model consisting of a given number of receiver stations in a two-dimensional space in which the animals move according to a central place movement model. The objective is to characterize how the transmission of tracking data depends on the movement of the animals and the design of the equipment deployment: quantity and location of the receiver stations and their associated reception radius. We also implement the model using real trajectories of southern elephant seals and Australian sea lions publicly available online and tracked during the years 2010–2012. We characterize the data transmission based on different equipment configurations and we obtained analogous results to the theoretical model.
  • Electrochemical and Computational Insights on the Application of Expired Metformin Drug as a Novel Inhibitor for the Sweet Corrosion of C1018 Steel

    Onyeachu, Ikenna B.; Abdel-Azeim, Safwat; Chauhan, Dheeraj Singh; Quraishi, Mumtaz A. (ACS Omega, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2020-12-23) [Article]
    An expired metformin drug (MET) was used as a corrosion inhibitor for C1018 carbon steel in a CO2-saturated 3.5wt % NaCl + 340 ppm acetic acid solution under static conditions. The inhibitor was evaluated using electrochemical methods complemented with surface analytical measurements and computational modeling. The drug displayed a high inhibition efficiency of∼90% at 200 ppm. Impedance analyses revealed a rise in the charge transfer resistance at the steel−solution interface upon the addition of the inhibitor. Polarization measurements suggested that MET acted more like a cathodic-type corrosion inhibitor and significantly reduced the corrosion current density. The adsorption of MET on the steel substrate followed the Langmuir isotherm, showing a mixed type of physical and chemical modes of adsorption. The thermodynamic parameters revealed strong and spontaneous adsorption on the steel surface. The surface analysis using SEM supported the inhibitor adsorption on the steel substrate. Based on the DFT simulation, inhibition by MET is mainly achieved by its protonated form, which leads to the formation of a thin film on the steel surface rather than the modification of the work function of the steel surface. The experimental and theoretical estimations of pKa complemented the DFT results, both agreeing that the monoprotonated form of MET is the dominant form in which the inhibitor adsorbs on the steel surface to form a thin film rather than modify the work function of the steel surface.
  • A spectral adjustment for spatial confounding

    Guan, Yawen; Page, Garritt L.; Reich, Brian J; Ventrucci, Massimo; Yang, Shu (arXiv, 2020-12-22) [Preprint]
    Adjusting for an unmeasured confounder is generally an intractable problem, but in the spatial setting it may be possible under certain conditions. In this paper, we derive necessary conditions on the coherence between the treatment variable of interest and the unmeasured confounder that ensure the causal effect of the treatment is estimable. We specify our model and assumptions in the spectral domain to allow for different degrees of confounding at different spatial resolutions. The key assumption that ensures identifiability is that confounding present at global scales dissipates at local scales. We show that this assumption in the spectral domain is equivalent to adjusting for global-scale confounding in the spatial domain by adding a spatially smoothed version of the treatment variable to the mean of the response variable. Within this general framework, we propose a sequence of confounder adjustment methods that range from parametric adjustments based on the Matern coherence function to more robust semi-parametric methods that use smoothing splines. These ideas are applied to areal and geostatistical data for both simulated and real datasets
  • Self-assembly of colloidal inorganic nanocrystals: nanoscale forces, emergent properties and applications

    Li, Xiyan; Liu, Xiaowang; Liu, Xiaogang (Chemical Society Reviews, Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), 2020-12-16) [Article]
    Nanoparticle self-assembly: this review summarizes various nanoscale forces governing nanoparticle assembly, the associated properties, and their applications in biological sensing and energy conversion.
  • Diffraction-angle filtering of gradient for acoustic full-waveform inversion

    Oh, Ju-Won; Cheng, Jiubing; Min, Dong-Joo (GEOPHYSICS, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 2020-12-07) [Article]
    Seismic full-waveform inversion (FWI) estimates the subsurface velocity structures by reducing data misfit between observed and modeled data. Simultaneous matching of transmitted and reflected waves in seismic FWI causes different updates of different wavenumber components of a given model depending on the diffraction angle between incident and diffracted rays. Motivated by the inverse scattering imaging condition and elastic full-waveform inversion, we propose applying a diffraction-angle filtering technique in acoustic FWI, which enables us to separate transmission and reflection energy in the partial derivative wavefields. The diffraction-angle filtering is applied to the virtual source, which is the model parameter perturbation acting as a source for the partial derivative wavefields. The diffraction-angle filtering consists of two diffraction-angle filters (DAF), DAF-I and DAF-II. DAF-I, which is derived from the particle acceleration of the incidence wavefields, suppresses energies at either small or large diffraction angles by simply changing the sign of the weighting factor. DAF-I is exactly identical to the conventional inverse scattering approach. DAF-II, which is derived from the artificial shear strain of the incident P-wave, additionally suppresses energies at intermediate diffraction angles. With this mechanism, we can design various types of diffraction-angle filtering to control the updates of wavenumber components of the misfit gradient with respect to the P-wave velocity. For the synthetic Marmousi-II data and real ocean-bottom seismic data from the North Sea, we demonstrate that the diffraction-angle filtering enables us to control low-, intermediate- and high-wavenumber components of the gradient direction.
  • Electronically Coupled 2D Polymer/MoS2 Heterostructures

    Balch, Halleh B.; Evans, Austin M.; Dasari, Raghunath R.; Li, Hong; Li, Ruofan; Thomas, Simil; Wang, Danqing; Bisbey, Ryan P.; Slicker, Kaitlin; Castano, Ioannina; Xun, Sangni; Jiang, Lili; Zhu, Chenhui; Gianneschi, Nathan; Ralph, Daniel C.; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Marder, Seth R.; Dichtel, William R.; Wang, Feng (Journal of the American Chemical Society, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2020-12-07) [Article]
    Emergent quantum phenomena in electronically coupled two-dimensional heterostructures are central to next-generation optical, electronic, and quantum information applications. Tailoring electronic band gaps in coupled heterostructures would permit control of such phenomena and is the subject of significant research interest. Two-dimensional polymers (2DPs) offer a compelling route to tailored band structures through the selection of molecular constituents. However, despite the promise of synthetic flexibility and electronic design, fabrication of 2DPs that form electronically coupled 2D heterostructures remains an outstanding challenge. Here, we report the rational design and optimized synthesis of electronically coupled semiconducting 2DP/2D transition metal dichalcogenide van der Waals heterostructures, demonstrate direct exfoliation of the highly crystalline and oriented 2DP films down to a few nanometers, and present the first thickness-dependent study of 2DP/MoS2 heterostructures. Control over the 2DP layers reveals enhancement of the 2DP photoluminescence by two orders of magnitude in ultrathin sheets and an unexpected thickness-dependent modulation of the ultrafast excited state dynamics in the 2DP/MoS2 heterostructure. These results provide fundamental insight into the electronic structure of 2DPs and present a route to tune emergent quantum phenomena in 2DP hybrid van der Waals heterostructures.
  • Spatially and temporally resolved temperature measurements in counterflow flames using a single interband cascade laser

    Wen, Daxin; Wang, Yu (Optics Express, The Optical Society, 2020-12-01) [Article]
    Spatially and temporally resolved temperatures are measured in counterflow diffusion flames with a tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technique based on direct absorption of CO2 near 4.2 µm. An important aspect of the present work is the reduction of the beam diameter to around 150 µm, thus providing high spatial resolution that is necessary to resolve the high axial temperature gradient in counterflow flames. The temperature non-uniformity was taken into account through both hyperspectral tomography and the multiline technique with profile fitting, with the latter one being capable of providing temporally resolved data. The proposed methods were used to measure four counterflow flames with peak temperature ranging from 1654 to 2720 K, including both non-sooting and sooting ones.
  • Shedding Light on the Interfacial Structure of Low-Coverage Alkanethiol Lattices

    Pensa, Evangelina; Azofra Mesa, Luis; Albrecht, Tim; Salvarezza, Roberto C.; Carro, Pilar (The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2020-11-24) [Article]
    A comprehensive description of the self-assembly process of alkanethiols on Au(111) is presented, focused on the initial formation of the lying down phases. Low-coverage monolayers are prepared by the disintegration of Au144(RS)60 nanoclusters on the reconstructed (22 × √3)-Au(111) surface. The method provides a limited number of thiols together with a large excess of gold adatoms. Scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations were employed to study the transition between low to high thiolate coverage phases. The process involves different lattices and surface transformations, including thiyl radicals on the herringbone reconstruction, radical-induced herringbone lifting, and the formation of energetically similar metastable phases formed by RS-Au-RS moieties. Results also show that the transition is slow, and different surface structures can coexist on the same sample. Along the process, the first source of Au adatoms to form the RS-Au-SR moieties is the lifting of the herringbone reconstruction because of the lower energetic cost to extract the extra Au atom. However, for hexanethiol (and shorter alkanethiols) at low coverage, additional Au adatoms must be taken from terraces leading to vacancy islands. This process can be entirely suppressed by growing the lying down phases in the presence of an excess of Au adatoms. Taken together, our results shed light on the elusive initial steps of thiol adsorption on clean reconstructed Au, showing that the RS-Au-SR staple motif is also present at the interface of low-coverage self-assembled monolayers.
  • Learning-based State Reconstruction for a Scalar Hyperbolic PDE under noisy Lagrangian Sensing

    Barreau, M.; Liu, J.; Johansson, K. H. (arXiv, 2020-11-19) [Preprint]
    The state reconstruction problem of a heterogeneous dynamic system under sporadic measurements is considered. This system consists of a conversation flow together with a multi-agent network modeling particles within the flow. We propose a partial-state reconstruction algorithm using physics-informed learning based on local measurements obtained from these agents. Traffic density reconstruction is used as an example to illustrate the results and it is shown that the approach provides an efficient noise rejection.
  • A Geometric Space-Time Multigrid Algorithm for the Heat Equation

    Köppl, Tobias Weinzierl & Tobias (Numerical Mathematics: Theory, Methods and Applications, Global Science Press, 2020-11-16) [Article]
    We study the time-dependent heat equation on its space-time domain that is discretised by a k-spacetree. k-spacetrees are a generalisation of the octree concept and are a discretisation paradigm yielding a multiscale representation of dynamically adaptive Cartesian grids with low memory footprint. The paper presents a full approximation storage geometric multigrid implementation for this setting that combines the smoothing properties of multigrid for the equation's elliptic operator with a multiscale solution propagation in time. While the runtime and memory overhead for tackling the all-in-one space-time problem is bounded, the holistic approach promises to exhibit a better parallel scalability than classical time stepping, adaptive dynamic refinement in space and time fall naturally into place, as well as the treatment of periodic boundary conditions of steady cycle systems, on-time computational steering is eased as the algorithm delivers guesses for the solution's long-term behaviour immediately, and, finally, backward problems arising from the adjoint equation benefit from the the solution being available for any point in space and time. © 2012 Global-Science Press.
  • Double-diffusive convection of solid particles in a porous X-shaped cavity filled with a nanofluid

    Aly, Abdelraheem M; Raizah, Zehba (Physica Scripta, IOP Publishing, 2020-11-13) [Article]
    In this work, numerical results are discussed for thermo-solutal convection resulting from embedded solid particles and partial length in X-shaped cavity. A heterogeneous porous medium and Al2O3-water nanofluid are filled the X-shaped cavity. The solid particles with a high temperature Thand concentration Chare filling the center part of X-shaped cavity. Variable length in the left-wall of X-shaped cavity is carrying Thand Chand similar variable length in the right-wall has Tcand Ccand the other wall parts are adiabatic.In this study, an incompressible s,oothed particle hydrodynamics is utilized to solve the governing equations of velocities, temperature and concentrations. Numerical simulations have been obtained for the variation of buoyancy ratio (−1 ≤ N ≤ 1) , Darcy parameter (10-2 ≤ Da ≤ 10-5), Lewis number (1 ≤ Le ≤ 50) , solid volume fraction (0 ≤ phiv ≤ 50) , partial lengths (0.6 ≤ Lh≤ 2) and Length of solid particles.
  • Michler’s hydrol blue elucidates structural differences in prion strains

    Xiao, Yiling; Rocha, Sandra; Kitts, Catherine C.; Reymer, Anna; Beke-Somfai, Tamás; Frederick, Kendra K.; Nordén, Bengt (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2020-11-09) [Article]
    Yeast prions provide self-templating protein-based mechanisms of inheritance whose conformational changes lead to the acquisition of diverse new phenotypes. The best studied of these is the prion domain (NM) of Sup35, which forms an amyloid that can adopt several distinct conformations (strains) that confer distinct phenotypes when introduced into cells that do not carry the prion. Classic dyes, such as thioflavin T and Congo red, exhibit large increases in fluorescence when bound to amyloids, but these dyes are not sensitive to local structural differences that distinguish amyloid strains. Here we describe the use of Michler’s hydrol blue (MHB) to investigate fibrils formed by the weak and strong prion fibrils of Sup35NM and find that MHB differentiates between these two polymorphs. Quantum mechanical time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations indicate that the fluorescence properties of amyloid-bound MHB can be correlated to the change of binding site polarity and that a tyrosine to phenylalanine substitution at a binding site could be detected. Through the use of site-specific mutants, we demonstrate that MHB is a site-specific environmentally sensitive probe that can provide structural details about amyloid fibrils and their polymorphs.
  • Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) with Multiple Intelligent Reflecting Surfaces

    Cheng, Yanyu; Li, Kwok Hung; Liu, Yuanwei; Teh, Kah Chan; Karagiannidis, George K. (arXiv, 2020-10-31) [Preprint]
    In this paper, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) networks assisted by multiple intelligent reflecting surfaces (IRSs) with discrete phase shifts are investigated, in which each user device (UD) is served by an IRS to improve the quality of the received signal. Two scenarios are considered based on whether there is a direct link or not between the base station (BS) and each UD, and the outage performance is analyzed for each of them. Specifically, the outage probability is approximated in the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, and the diversity order is obtained. Orthogonal multiple access (OMA) can be regarded as a special case of NOMA, and the outage performance of the multi-IRS assisted OMA system is also characterized. It is demonstrated that NOMA outperforms OMA in multi-IRS assisted networks. Furthermore, it is shown that the use of discrete phase shifts does not degrade the diversity order. More importantly, simulation results further reveal that a 3-bit resolution for discrete phase shifts is sufficient to achieve near-optimal outage performance.
  • Doping Modulation of the Charge Injection Barrier between a Covalent Organic Framework Monolayer and Graphene

    Li, Huifang; Li, Hong; Xun, Sangni; Bredas, Jean-Luc (Chemistry of Materials, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2020-10-28) [Article]
    The rapid development in the design and synthesis of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) brings opportunities in tuning their electronic and magnetic properties and expanding their applications. Controlled chemical doping is a traditional route to modulate the charge carrier injection and transport properties in organic molecular and polymeric semiconductors; it represents a natural strategy that, however, has not been explored systematically for COF monolayers (2D COFs), especially when interfaced with inorganic substrates. Here, considering alkali metal (Na) atoms as conventional dopants, we investigate at the Density Functional Theory level the n-type doping of the porphyrin-based COF, COF366-OMe, in the form of both a freestanding monolayer or as interacting with a graphene substrate. The COF monolayer and COF/graphene complex are found to be efficiently n-doped by accepting a full electron from each Na dopant. On the COF/graphene complex, while a Na atom binds more strongly to the COF than to graphene, the transferred electron distributes between them. As a result, the Fermi level of graphene shifts above the Dirac point, whereas the conduction band minimum of the 2D COF strongly stabilizes; the consequence is a marked reduction in the electron injection barrier between the graphene sheet and the 2D COF. Our study highlights the key role that controlled chemical doping of COFs can play in tuning their charge injection and transport properties for optoelectronic applications.
  • Spin orbit torque switching of synthetic Co/Ir/Co trilayers with perpendicular anisotropy and tunable interlayer coupling

    Ma, Qinli; Li, Yufan; Choi, Young-suk; Chen, Wei-Chuan; Han, Shu Jen; Chien, C. L. (Applied Physics Letters, AIP Publishing, 2020-10-27) [Article]
    Spin orbit torque (SOT) has attracted much attention as an energy efficient electrical method to switch the magnetization in single magnetic layer with both in-plane and perpendicular anisotropy. Here, we report SOT switching of synthetic antiferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic Co/Ir/Co trilayers, where the net magnetization and the interlayer coupling strength are highly controllable. A weak external field dependence of the SOT switching was observed due to the robust domain wall structure in the trilayer. The switching current density was observed to scale inversely with the net magnetization. For trilayers with the same net magnetization, switching current is independent of the layer order because switching in the thicker Co layer dominates. In both ferromagnetic and antiferromagetic regimes, the switching current reflects the interlayer coupling strength.
  • Water Electrolysis in Saturated Phosphate Buffer at Neutral pH

    Naito, Takahiro; Shinagawa, Tatsuya; Nishimoto, Takeshi; Takanabe, Kazuhiro (ChemSusChem, Wiley, 2020-10-27) [Article]
    Hydrogen production from renewable energy and ubiquitous water has a potential to achieve sustainability, although current water electrolyzers cannot compete economically with the fossil fuel-based technology. Here, we evaluate water electrolysis at pH 7 that is milder than acidic and alkaline pH counterparts and may overcome this issue. The physicochemical properties of concentrated buffer electrolytes were assessed at various temperatures and molalities for quantitative determination of losses associated with mass-transport during the water electrolysis. Subsequently, in saturated K-phosphate solutions at 80 °C and 100 °C that were found to be optimal to minimize the losses originating from mass-transport at the neutral pH, the water electrolysis performance over model electrodes of IrOx and Pt as an anode and a cathode, respectively, was reasonably comparable with those of the extreme pH. Remarkably, this concentrated buffer solution also achieved enhanced stability, adding another merit of this electrolyte for water electrolysis.
  • In Situ Shape Control of Thermoplasmonic Gold Nanostars on Oxide Substrates for Hyperthermia-Mediated Cell Detachment

    Vinnacombe-Willson, Gail A.; Chiang, Naihao; Scarabelli, Leonardo; Hu, Yuan; Heidenreich, Liv K.; Li, Xi; Gong, Yao; Inouye, Derek T.; Fisher, Timothy S.; Weiss, Paul S.; Jonas, Steven J. (ACS Central Science, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2020-10-23) [Article]
    Gold nanostars (AuNSTs) are biocompatible, have large surface areas, and are characterized by high near-infrared extinction, making them ideal for integration with technologies targeting biological applications. We have developed a robust and simple microfluidic method for the direct growth of anisotropic AuNSTs on oxide substrates including indium tin oxide and glass. The synthesis was optimized to yield AuNSTs with high anisotropy, branching, uniformity, and density in batch and microfluidic systems for optimal light-to-heat conversion upon laser irradiation. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra and mesoscale temperature measurements were combined with spatially correlated scanning electron microscopy to monitor nanostar and ligand stability and microbubble formation at different laser fluences. The capability of the platform for generating controlled localized heating was used to explore hyperthermia-assisted detachment of adherent glioblastoma cells (U87-GFP) grafted to the capillary walls. Both flow and laser fluence can be tuned to induce different biological responses, such as ablation, cell deformation, release of intracellular components, and the removal of intact cells. Ultimately, this platform has potential applications in biological and chemical sensing, hyperthermia-mediated drug delivery, and microfluidic soft-release of grafted cells with single-cell specificity.
  • Online Time-Varying Topology Identification via Prediction-Correction Algorithms

    Natali, Alberto; Coutino, Mario; Isufi, Elvin; Leus, Geert (arXiv, 2020-10-22) [Preprint]
    Signal processing and machine learning algorithms for data supported over graphs, require the knowledge of the graph topology. Unless this information is given by the physics of the problem (e.g., water supply networks, power grids), the topology has to be learned from data. Topology identification is a challenging task, as the problem is often ill-posed, and becomes even harder when the graph structure is time-varying. In this paper, we address the problem of dynamic topology identification by building on recent results from time-varying optimization, devising a general-purpose online algorithm operating in non-stationary environments. Because of its iteration-constrained nature, the proposed approach exhibits an intrinsic temporal-regularization of the graph topology without explicitly enforcing it. As a case-study, we specialize our method to the Gaussian graphical model (GGM) problem and corroborate its performance.
  • Design Principles and Developments of Integrated Solar Flow Batteries

    Li, Wenjie; Jin, Song (Accounts of Chemical Research, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2020-10-21) [Article]
    Due to the intermittent nature of sunlight, practical round-trip solar energy utilization systems require both efficient solar energy conversion and inexpensive large-scale energy storage. Conventional round-trip solar energy utilization systems typically rely on the combination of two or more separated devices to fulfill such requirements. Integrated solar flow batteries (SFBs) are a new type of device that integrates solar energy conversion and electrochemical storage. In SFBs, the solar energy absorbed by photoelectrodes is converted into chemical energy by charging up redox couples dissolved in electrolyte solutions in contact with the photoelectrodes. To deliver electricity on demand, the reverse redox reactions are carried out to release chemical energy stored in redox couples as one would do in the discharge of a normal redox flow battery (RFB). The integrated design of SFBs enables all the functions demanded by round trip solar energy utilization systems to be realized within a single device. Leveraging rapidly developing parallel technologies of photovoltaic solar cells and RFBs, significant progress in the field of SFBs has been made in the past few years. This Account aims to provide a general reference and tutorial for researchers who are interested in SFBs, and to describe the design principles and thus facilitate the development of this nascent field. The operation principle of SFBs is built on the working mechanism of RFBs and photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells, so we first describe the basic concept and important features of RFBs and redox couples with the emphasis on the quantitative understanding of RFB cell potentials. We also introduce different types of PEC cells and highlight two different photoelectrode designs that are commonly seen in SFB literature: simple semiconductor photoelectrodes and PV cell photoelectrodes. A set of experimental protocols for characterizing the redox couples, RFBs, photoelectrodes, and SFBs are presented to promote comparable assessment and discussion of important figures of merits of SFBs. Solar-to-output electricity efficiency (SOEE) defines the round trip energy efficiency of SFBs and has received substantial research attention. We introduce a quantitative simulation method to find the relationship between the SOEE and cell potential of SFBs and reveal the design principles for highly efficient SFBs. Several other important performance metrics of SFBs are also introduced. Then we review the historical development of SFBs and identify the state-of-the-art demonstrations at each development stage with more emphasis on our own research efforts in developing SFBs built with PV photoelectrodes. Finally, we preview some promising future directions and the challenges for advancing both the scientific understanding and practical applications of SFBs.

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