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dc.contributor.authorJadoon, Khan
dc.contributor.authorWeihermller, Lutz
dc.contributor.authorMcCabe, Matthew
dc.contributor.authorMoghadas, Davood
dc.contributor.authorVereecken, Harry
dc.contributor.authorLambot, Sbastien
dc.date.accessioned2015-09-29T05:30:53Z
dc.date.available2015-09-29T05:30:53Z
dc.date.issued2015-09-18
dc.identifier.citationTemporal Monitoring of the Soil Freeze-Thaw Cycles over a Snow-Covered Surface by Using Air-Launched Ground-Penetrating Radar 2015, 7 (9):12041 Remote Sensing
dc.identifier.issn2072-4292
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/rs70912041
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/578845
dc.description.abstractWe tested an off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system at a fixed location over a bare agricultural field to monitor the soil freeze-thaw cycles over a snow-covered surface. The GPR system consisted of a monostatic horn antenna combined with a vector network analyzer, providing an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. An antenna calibration experiment was performed to filter antenna and back scattered effects from the raw GPR data. Near the GPR setup, sensors were installed in the soil to monitor the dynamics of soil temperature and dielectric permittivity at different depths. The soil permittivity was retrieved via inversion of time domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and dielectric permittivity measurements. In particular, five freeze and thaw events were clearly detectable, indicating that the GPR signals respond to the contrast between the dielectric permittivity of frozen and thawed soil. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. Overall, the off-ground nature of the GPR system permits non-invasive time-lapse observation of the soil freeze-thaw dynamics without disturbing the structure of the snow cover. The proposed method shows promise for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the shallow frozen layer at the field scale.
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherMDPI AG
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.mdpi.com/2072-4292/7/9/12041/
dc.rightsThis article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
dc.subjectground-penetrating radar
dc.subjectfreeze-thaw cycles
dc.subjectseasonal snow cover
dc.subjectinversion
dc.titleTemporal Monitoring of the Soil Freeze-Thaw Cycles over a Snow-Covered Surface by Using Air-Launched Ground-Penetrating Radar
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.identifier.journalRemote Sensing
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDF
dc.contributor.institutionAgrosphere (IBG-3), Forschungszentrum Jlich GmbH, 52425 Juelich, Germany
dc.contributor.institutionFederal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Stilleweg 2, 30655 Hannover, Germany
dc.contributor.institutionEarth and Life Institute, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud, 2 box L7.05.02, Louvain-la-Neuve B-1348, Belgium
dc.contributor.affiliationKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)
kaust.personJadoon, Khan
kaust.personMcCabe, Matthew
refterms.dateFOA2018-06-13T11:04:25Z


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