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dc.contributor.authorAlidina, Mazahirali
dc.contributor.authorHoppe-Jones, Christiane
dc.contributor.authorYoon, Min
dc.contributor.authorHamadeh, Ahmed F.
dc.contributor.authorLi, Dong
dc.contributor.authorDrewes, Jorg
dc.date.accessioned2015-08-24T08:36:18Z
dc.date.available2015-08-24T08:36:18Z
dc.date.issued2014-04
dc.identifier.issn00489697
dc.identifier.pmid24531125
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.01.093
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/575709
dc.description.abstractEmerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) released into the environment via discharge of wastewater effluents have been detected in rivers and lakes worldwide, raising concerns due to their potential persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation. This study provides the first reconnaissance of TOrC occurrence in wastewater effluents within Saudi Arabia. Four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs 1-4) located in Western Saudi Arabia were sampled hourly over twelve-hour periods, for a total of six sampling events. All samples were analyzed for a wide range of TOrC encompassing pharmaceuticals, personal care products and household chemicals. Treatment and capacities of the plants varied from non-nitrifying to full biological nutrient removal providing a representative cross section of different types of plants operational within the country. A comparison of TOrC occurrence in effluents in Saudi Arabia with respective effluent qualities in the United States revealed similar levels for most TOrC. Overall, the occurrence of TOrC was higher at two of the plants. The higher TOrC concentrations at WWTP 1 are likely due to the non-nitrifying biological treatment process. The unique TOrC occurrence observed in the WWTP 3 effluent was unlike any other plant and was attributed to the influence of a large number of international visitors in its sewershed. The occurrence of TOrC in this plant was not expected to be representative of the occurrence elsewhere in the country. Bimodal diurnal variation expected for a range of TOrC was not observed, though some hourly variation in TOrC loading was noted for WWTP 3. Since water reclamation and reuse have received increasing interest in Saudi Arabia within the last few years, results from this study provide a good foundation in deciding whether advanced treatment is necessary to attenuate TOrC deemed to be of concern in effluents, or if natural treatment such as managed aquifer recharge provides sufficient protection to public health. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
dc.publisherElsevier BV
dc.subjectEmerging trace organic chemicals
dc.subjectLiquid-chromatography mass-spectrometry
dc.subjectSaudi Arabia
dc.subjectWater reuse
dc.titleThe occurrence of emerging trace organic chemicals in wastewater effluents in Saudi Arabia
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentEnvironmental Science and Engineering Program
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)
dc.contributor.departmentDesert Agriculture Initiative
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination & Reuse Research Cntr
dc.identifier.journalScience of The Total Environment
dc.contributor.institutionUrban Water Systems Engineering, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching, Germany
kaust.personAlidina, Mazahirali
kaust.personHoppe-Jones, Christiane
kaust.personYoon, Min
kaust.personHamadeh, Ahmed F.
kaust.personLi, Dong
kaust.personDrewes, Jorg


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