• TopSpin: TOPic Discovery via Sparse Principal Component INterference

      Takáč, Martin; Ahipaşaoğlu, Selin Damla; Cheung, Ngai-Man; Richtarik, Peter (Brain-Inspired Intelligence and Visual Perception, Springer Singapore, 2019-02-14) [Book Chapter]
      We propose a novel topic discovery algorithm for unlabeled images based on the bag-of-words (BoW) framework. We first extract a dictionary of visual words and subsequently for each image compute a visual word occurrence histogram. We view these histograms as rows of a large matrix from which we extract sparse principal components (PCs). Each PC identifies a sparse combination of visual words which co-occur frequently in some images but seldom appear in others. Each sparse PC corresponds to a topic, and images whose interference with the PC is high belong to that topic, revealing the common parts possessed by the images. We propose to solve the associated sparse PCA problems using an Alternating Maximization (AM) method, which we modify for the purpose of efficiently extracting multiple PCs in a deflation scheme. Our approach attacks the maximization problem in SPCA directly and is scalable to high-dimensional data. Experiments on automatic topic discovery and category prediction demonstrate encouraging performance of our approach. Our SPCA solver is publicly available.
    • Environmental Challenges and Opportunities in Marine Engine Heavy Fuel Oil Combustion

      Abdul Jameel, Abdul Gani; Alkhateeb, Abdulrahman; Telalovic, Selvedin; Elbaz, Ayman M.; Roberts, William L.; Sarathy, Mani (Multi-Target Drug Design Using Chem-Bioinformatic Approaches, Springer New York, 2019-01-16) [Book Chapter]
      Heavy fuel oil (HFO) has been used as fuel to propel marine engines for over half a century. HFO combustion results in the release of particulate matter like smoke, cenospheres, and ash, and the high sulfur content in HFO results in sulfur dioxide emissions. The use of HFO has resulted in deleterious effects on the environment and on human health. As a result, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has placed a complete ban on its use on ships in the Antarctic waters to preserve the ecosystem from harm; by 2020, this regulation could be extended to the rest of the world. In the present work, the environmental challenges associated with HFO combustion in the form of gaseous emissions like CO, CO, SO, and NO were analyzed using TGA-FTIR technique. Particulate emission like cenosphere formation during HFO combustion was also studied by employing HFO droplet combustion experiments. The influence of asphaltenes, which are notorious for negatively impacting HFO combustion and are responsible for cenosphere formation, was also studied. Strategies like desulfurization, asphaltene removal, and gasification were proposed to help reduce the environmental impact of ships powered by HFO.
    • Scalable Cardiac Electro-Mechanical Solvers and Reentry Dynamics

      Franzone, P. Colli; Pavarino, L. F.; Scacchi, S.; Zampini, Stefano (Domain Decomposition Methods in Science and Engineering XXIV, Springer International Publishing, 2019-01-04) [Book Chapter]
      We present a scalable solver for the three-dimensional cardiac electro-mechanical coupling (EMC) model, which represents, currently, the most complete mathematical description of the interplay between the electrical and mechanical phenomena occurring during a heartbeat. The most computational demanding parts of the EMC model are: the electrical current flow model of the cardiac tissue, called Bidomain model, consisting of two non-linear partial differential equations of reaction-diffusion type; the quasi-static finite elasticity model for the deformation of the cardiac tissue. Our finite element parallel solver is based on: Block Jacobi and Multilevel Additive Schwarz preconditioners for the solution of the linear systems deriving from the discretization of the Bidomain equations; Newton-Krylov-Algebraic-Multigrid or Newton-Krylov-BDDC algorithms for the solution of the non-linear algebraic system deriving from the discretization of the finite elasticity equations. Three-dimensional numerical test on two linux clusters show the effectiveness and scalability of the EMC solver in simulating both physiological and pathological cardiac dynamics.
    • Balancing Domain Decomposition by Constraints Algorithms for Curl-Conforming Spaces of Arbitrary Order

      Zampini, Stefano; Vassilevski, Panayot; Dobrev, Veselin; Kolev, Tzanio (Domain Decomposition Methods in Science and Engineering XXIV, Springer International Publishing, 2019-01-04) [Book Chapter]
      We construct Balancing Domain Decomposition by Constraints methods for the linear systems arising from arbitrary order, finite element discretizations of the H(curl) model problem in three-dimensions. Numerical results confirm that the proposed algorithm is quasi-optimal in the coarse-to-fine mesh ratio, and poly-logarithmic in the polynomial order of the curl-conforming discretization space. Additional numerical experiments, including higher-order geometries, upscaled finite elements, and adaptive coarse spaces, prove the robustness of our algorithm. A scalable three-level extension is presented, and it is validated with large scale experiments using up to 16,384 subdomains and almost a billion of degrees of freedom.
    • Virus-Mediated Genome Editing in Plants Using the CRISPR/Cas9 System

      Mahas, Ahmed; Ali, Zahir; Tashkandi, Manal; Mahfouz, Magdy M. (Plant Genome Editing with CRISPR Systems, Springer New York, 2019-01-04) [Protocol]
      Targeted modification of plant genomes is a powerful strategy for investigating and engineering cellular systems, paving the way for the discovery and development of important, novel agricultural traits. Cas9, an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease from the type II adaptive immune CRISPR system of the prokaryote Streptococcus pyogenes, has gained widespread popularity as a genome-editing tool for use in a wide array of cells and organisms, including model and crop plants. Effective genome engineering requires the delivery of the Cas9 protein and guide RNAs into target cells. However, in planta genome modification faces many hurdles, including the difficulty in efficiently delivering genome engineering reagents to the desired tissues. We recently developed a Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-mediated genome engineering system for Nicotiana benthamiana. Using this platform, genome engineering reagents can be delivered into all plant parts in a simple, efficient manner, facilitating the recovery of progeny plants with the desired genomic modifications, thus bypassing the need for transformation and tissue culture. This platform expands the utility of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for in planta, targeted genome modification. Here, we provide a detailed protocol explaining the methodologies used to develop and implement TRV-mediated genome engineering in N. benthamiana. The protocol described here can be extended to any other plant species susceptible to systemic infection by TRV. However, this approach is not limited to vectors derived from TRV, as other RNA viruses could be used to develop similar delivery platforms.
    • Scalability of a parallel monolithic multilevel solver for poroelasticity

      Nägel, Arne; Wittum, Gabriel (Springer, 2019) [Book Chapter]
      This study investigates a solver for the quasi-static Biot model for soil con- solidation. The scheme consists of an extrapolation scheme in time, com- plemented by a scalable monolithic multigrid method for solving the linear systems resulting after spatial discretisation. The key ingredient for the later is a fixed-stress inexact Uzawa smoother that has been suggested and anal- ysed using local Fourier analysis before [8]. The work at hand investigates the parallel properties of the resulting multigrid solver. For a 3D benchmark problem with roughly 400 million degrees of freedom, scalability is demon- strated in a preliminary study on HazelHen. The presented solver framework should be seen as a prototype, and can be extended and generalized, e.g., to non-linear problems easily.
    • Numerical recipies for landslide spatial prediction by using R-INLA: A step-by-step tutorial

      Lombardo, Luigi; Opitz, Thomas; Huser, Raphaël (Elsevier, 2019) [Book Chapter]
      The geomorphological community typically assesses the landslide susceptibility at the catch- ment or larger scales through spatial predictive models. However, the spatial information is conveyed only through the geographical distribution of the covariates. Spatial dependence, which allows capturing similarities at neighboring sites that are not directly explained by covariate information, is typically not accounted for in the landslides literature, whilst such spatial models have become commonplace in the geostatistical literature. Here we explain step by step how to rigorously model and predict activations of debris flow based on an adequate statistical model by using the R-INLA library from the statistical software R in the context of a real multiple landslide event. This chapter follows the analysis of Lombardo et al. (2018a) with a few modifications; it is written in a tutorial style to provide the geomor- phological community with a hands-on guide to replicate similar analyses in R. While our focus here is on implementation and computing, more details about the underlying statistical theory, modeling and estimation can be found in Lombardo et al. (2018a). Our modeling approach deviates fundamentally from the commonly-used regression models fitted to binary presence/absence data. Specifically, we use a Bayesian hierarchical Cox point process model to describe landslide counts at high resolution (i.e., at the pixel level), while capturing spatial dependence through a latent spatial effect defined at lower resolution over slope units. Our point process modeling approach allows us to derive the distribution of aggregated landslide counts for any areas of interest. Crucially, the latent spatial effect represents the unexplained but spatially structured component in the data when the linear or nonlinear effects of covariates are removed. Thus, in the case of sparse raingauge or seismic networks, we suggest using the latent spatial effect to uncover the trigger distribution over space. In particular, for landslides triggered by extreme precipitation, the meteorological stress can play a dominant role with respect to the covariates that are typically introduced in predictive models; therefore, accounting for the trigger in modeling may dramatically improve the performance of landslide prediction.
    • Spatial extremes

      Davison, Anthony C.; Huser, Raphaël (CRC Press, 2019) [Book Chapter]
    • Compact CPV—Sustainable Approach for Efficient Solar Energy Capture with Hybrid Concentrated Photovoltaic Thermal (CPVT) System and Hydrogen Production

      Burhan, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Ng, Kim Choon (The Energy Mix for Sustaining Our Future, Springer International Publishing, 2018-12-29) [Book Chapter]
      Solar energy being intermittent in nature can provide a sustainable, steady, and high-density energy source when converted into electrolytic hydrogen. However, in the current photovoltaic market trend with 99% conventional single junction PV panels, this cannot be achieved efficiently and economically. The advent of the multi-junction solar cells (MJCs), with cell efficiency exceeding 46%, has yet to receive widespread acceptance in the current PV market in form of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system, because of its system design complexity, limiting its application scope and customers. The objective of this paper is to develop a low-cost compact CPV system that will not only eliminate its application and installation-related restrictions but it is also introducing a highly efficient and sustainable photovoltaic system for common consumer, to convert intermittent sunlight into green hydrogen. The developed CPV system negates the common conviction by showing two times more power output than the flat plate PV, in the tropical region. In addition, sunlight to hydrogen conversion efficiency of 18% is recorded for CPV, which is two times higher than alone electricity production efficiency of flat plate PV. As concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system can operate at ×1000 concentration ratio, therefore, such high concentration ratio requires heat dissipation from the cell area to maintain optimum temperature. With such heat recovery, the hybrid CPVT system has shown solar energy conversion efficiency of 71%.
    • An Adjoint-Based Approach for a Class of Nonlinear Fokker-Planck Equations and Related Systems

      Festa, Adriano; Gomes, Diogo A.; Machado Velho, Roberto (PDE Models for Multi-Agent Phenomena, Springer International Publishing, 2018-12-22) [Book Chapter]
      Here, we introduce a numerical approach for a class of Fokker-Planck (FP) equations. These equations are the adjoint of the linearization of Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations. Using this structure, we show how to transfer properties of schemes for HJ equations to FP equations. Hence, we get numerical schemes with desirable features such as positivity and mass-preservation. We illustrate this approach in examples that include mean-field games and a crowd motion model.
    • Increasing Salinity Tolerance of Crops

      Alqahtani, Mashael; Roy, Stuart J.; Tester, Mark A. (Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, Springer New York, 2018-12-18) [Book Chapter]
    • Physicochemical Dynamics, Microbial Community Patterns, and Reef Growth in Coral Reefs of the Central Red Sea

      Roik, Anna Krystyna; Ziegler, Maren; Voolstra, Christian R. (Oceanographic and Biological Aspects of the Red Sea, Springer International Publishing, 2018-12-06) [Book Chapter]
      Coral reefs in the Red Sea belong to the most diverse and productive reef ecosystems worldwide, although they are exposed to strong seasonal variability, high temperature, and high salinity. These factors are considered stressful for coral reef biota and challenge reef growth in other oceans, but coral reefs in the Red Sea thrive despite these challenges. In the central Red Sea high temperatures, high salinities, and low dissolved oxygen on the one hand reflect conditions that are predicted for ‘future oceans’ under global warming. On the other hand, alkalinity and other carbonate chemistry parameters are considered favourable for coral growth. In coral reefs of the central Red Sea, temperature and salinity follow a seasonal cycle, while chlorophyll and inorganic nutrients mostly vary spatially, and dissolved oxygen and pH fluctuate on the scale of hours to days. Within these strong environmental gradients micro- and macroscopic reef communities are dynamic and demonstrate plasticity and acclimatisation potential. Epilithic biofilm communities of bacteria and algae, crucial for the recruitment of reef-builders, undergo seasonal community shifts that are mainly driven by changes in temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen. These variables are predicted to change with the progression of global environmental change and suggest an immediate effect of climate change on the microbial community composition of biofilms. Corals are so-called holobionts and associate with a variety of microbial organisms that fulfill important functions in coral health and productivity. For instance, coral-associated bacterial communities are more specific and less diverse than those of marine biofilms, and in many coral species in the central Red Sea they are dominated by bacteria from the genus Endozoicomonas. Generally, coral microbiomes align with ecological differences between reef sites. They are similar at sites where these corals are abundant and successful. Coral microbiomes reveal a measurable footprint of anthropogenic influence at polluted sites. Coral-associated communities of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in central Red Sea corals are dominated by Symbiodinium from clade C. Some corals harbour the same specific symbiont with a high physiological plasticity throughout their distribution range, while others maintain a more flexible association with varying symbionts of high physiological specificity over depths, seasons, or reef locations. The coral-Symbiodinium endosymbiosis drives calcification of the coral skeleton, which is a key process that provides maintenance and formation of the reef framework. Calcification rates and reef growth are not higher than in other coral reef regions, despite the beneficial carbonate chemistry in the central Red Sea. This may be related to the comparatively high temperatures, as indicated by reduced summer calcification and long-term slowing of growth rates that correlate with ocean warming trends. Indeed, thermal limits of abundant coral species in the central Red Sea may have been exceeded, as evidenced by repeated mass bleaching events during previous years. Recent comprehensive baseline data from central Red Sea reefs allow for insight into coral reef functioning and for quantification of the impacts of environmental change in the region.
    • Seagrass Distribution, Composition and Abundance Along the Saudi Arabian Coast of Red Sea

      Qurban, Mohammad Ali B.; Karuppasamy, Manikandan; Krishnakumar, Periyadan K.; Garcias Bonet, Neus; Duarte, Carlos M. (Oceanographic and Biological Aspects of the Red Sea, Springer International Publishing, 2018-12-06) [Book Chapter]
      Seagrasses rank among the most productive ecosystems with important implications in climate change mitigation. Tropical and subtropical seas hold the largest seagrass species richness. A total of 12 different seagrass species have been reported from the Red Sea. However, there is little information on seagrass diversity and distribution along the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea. This study aims to capture: (i) the distribution and composition of seagrasses from 18°N to 28°N latitudes on a broader scale, and (ii) the species composition, distribution and abundance of seagrasses by detailed investigations at three locations along the Saudi Arabian coast: Sharma, Umluj and Jazan, representing the northern, central and southern Red Sea. The most commonly observed seagrass species along the Red Sea were Halodule uninervis (17 observations), Thalassia hemprichii (13 observations) and Halophila stipulacea (11 observations). Halophila stipulacea was the most dominant species at each of the three locations studied in more detail. Syringodium isoetifolium and Thalassodendron ciliatum were found only at Umluj, while H. ovalis and T. hemprichii were found only at Jazan. H. uninervis was observed at both Umluj and Jazan. Shoot lengths of H. stipulacea and H. uninervis showed significant differences among the three locations. The average above-ground biomass of seagrasses differed significantly among locations (analysis <0.05; multiple tests), with the highest biomass for Halophila stipulacea recorded at Jazan (81 ± 24 gDW m−2) and an average biomass for T. ciliatum of 74 ± 16 gDW m−2 at Umluj. The species T. ciliatum was the only taxa that exhibited significant differences (p < 0.05) in the abundance of seagrasses among the three locations. This work contributes further to our understanding of the distribution and diversity of seagrasses in the Red Sea, confirming a high seagrass richness with at least ten different species along the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea.
    • Crustal and Upper-Mantle Structure Beneath Saudi Arabia from Receiver Functions and Surface Wave Analysis

      Mai, Paul Martin; Julià, Jordi; Tang, Zheng (Geological Setting, Palaeoenvironment and Archaeology of the Red Sea, Springer International Publishing, 2018-12-05) [Book Chapter]
      Using receiver-functions and surface-wave dispersion curves, we study the crustal and upper-mantle structure of Saudi Arabia. Our results reveal first-order differences in crustal thickness between the Arabian Shield in the west and the Arabian Platform in the east. Moho depths generally increase eastward, while crustal thickness varies strongly in the west over the volcanic regions and near the Red Sea. Localized zones of increased P-wave speed in the west may indicate solidified magmatic intrusions within the area of recent volcanism. Our receiver-function analysis for deep converted phases reveals that the transition zone thickness between the 410 km and the 660 km discontinuities is not anomalously thinned, refuting the hypothesis of a small localized mantle plume as the origin for the volcanic activity in western Saudi Arabia. Our results suggest that the volcanism in western Arabia may be due to the lithospheric mantle being heated from below by lateral flow from the Afar and (possibly) Jordan plumes. This triggers localized melts that ascend adiabatically through the lithosphere as magma diapirs. Recent xenolith measurements that provide information on temperatures and depths of melting are overall consistent with this hypothesis. However, further dedicated localized tomographic studies are needed to decipher the details of the origin of the volcanism and its relation to the overall geodynamics of the region.
    • Applications of Emerging Nanomaterials for Oily Wastewater Treatment

      Goh, P.S.; Ong, Chi Siang; Ng, B.C.; Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi (Nanotechnology in Water and Wastewater Treatment, Elsevier, 2018-11-23) [Book Chapter]
      The huge volume of oily wastewater produced from the industries has resulted in alarming environmental pollution and resource usage problems. A wide range of conventional and emerging approaches have been established to effectively reduce all these pollutants to an acceptable level to discharge the treated wastewater for reuse. Lately, nanomaterials have shown great potential to address this issue based on their unique and exceptionally properties such as high surface area, superhydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and surface functionalities. This chapter discusses the application of emerging nanomaterials for oily wastewater treatment. The characteristics of these nanomaterials and their hybrid or nanocomposites for oily water treatment are discussed. Finally, a brief future outlook and concluding remarks are presented.
    • Optimization Strategy of Sustainable Concentrated Photovoltaic Thermal (CPVT) System for Cooling

      Burhan, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Ng, Kim Choon (Energy Sustainability in Built and Urban Environments, Springer Singapore, 2018-11-09) [Book Chapter]
      Renewable energy resources are susceptible to intermittent power supply, and their standalone operation has prime importance for steady power supply. Solar energy resources have high global availability and potential among all energy sources. Most of areas with high solar energy potential have either dry hot or tropical climate. A major portion of primary energy supply for such area is utilized in their cooling energy needs. In this chapter, a sustainable approach for cooling needs has been proposed using solar energy-based highly efficient concentrated photovoltaic (CPV). A combined cooling system, based upon mechanical vapour compression (MVC), and adsorption chillers have been considered. The MVC chiller utilizes the produced electricity by the third -generation multi-junction solar cells (MJCs). However, adsorption chiller is operated with thermal energy recovered from the cooling of CPV system, which also increases the system efficiency as high as 71%. To handle intermittency, hydrogen production is used primary energy storage system, along with the hot water storage. The complete system configuration is then optimized for standalone operation with optimum components size and minimum cost, using micro-genetic algorithm according to proposed optimization strategy.
    • Renewable Energy Storage and Its Application for Desalination

      Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Burhan, Muhammad; Ng, Kim Choon (Energy Sustainability in Built and Urban Environments, Springer Singapore, 2018-11-09) [Book Chapter]
      The economic development has serious impact on the nexus between water, energy, and environment. This impact is even more severe in Non-Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (non-OECD) countries due to improper resource management. It is predicted that energy demand will increase by more than 71% in non-OECD as compared to 18% in developed countries by 2040. In Gulf Cooperation Council countries, water and power sector consume almost half of primary energy produced. In the past, many studies were focused on renewable energies based on desalination processes to accommodate fivefold increase in demand by 2050 but they were not commercialized due to intermittent nature of renewable energy such as solar and wind. We proposed highly efficient energy storage material, magnesium oxide (MgO), system integrated with innovative hybrid desalination cycle for future sustainable water supplies. The condensation of Mg(OH)2 dehydration vapor during day operation with concentrated solar energy and exothermic hydration of MgO at night can produce 24 h thermal energy without any interruption. It was showed that Mg(OH)2 dehydration vapor condensation produces 120 °C and MgO hydration exothermic reaction produces 140 °C heat during day and night operation, respectively, corresponding to energy storage of 81 kJ/mol and 41 kJ/mol. The produced energy can be utilized to operate desalination cycle to reduce CO2 emission and to achieve COP21 goal. The proposed hybrid desalination cycle is successfully demonstrated by pilot experiments at KAUST. It was showed that MgO + MEDAD cycle can achieve performance over UPR = 200, one of the highest reported ever.
    • Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) for Rooftop—Compact System Approach

      Burhan, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Ng, Kim Choon (Energy, Environment, and Sustainability, Springer Singapore, 2018-11-01) [Book Chapter]
      The single-junction-based conventional PV panels are dominating almost the entire photovoltaic market. In addition, they can only offer a limited solar conversion efficiency due to limitations of the band gap of their single pn-junction. On the other hand, third-generation multi-junction solar cell offers the highest solar energy conversion efficiency as their multiple pn-junctions can absorb a larger portion of solar spectrum. Despite such high potential, their share in current photovoltaic market is still negligible, even though, they have been used in form of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems to reduce the use of expensive solar cell material. The main reason for such low market share is due to the gigantic design of commercial PV system which is only suitable to install in the open desert regions, thereby limiting its customers and application scope. In this chapter, a compact CPV system design is discussed with the motivation for its rooftop application and installation. Moreover, the long-term performance of CPV is also compared with conventional PV system in tropical conditions to highlight its potential in low solar energy areas.
    • Combustion-Based Transportation in a Carbon-Constrained World—A Review

      Javed, Tamour; Ahmed, Ahfaz; Raman, Vallinayagam; Alquaity, Awad B. S.; Johansson, Bengt (Energy, Environment, and Sustainability, Springer Singapore, 2018-11-01) [Book Chapter]
      The transportation sector accounts for around a quarter of global CO2 emissions and is powered predominantly by fossil-derived fuels. The regulatory framework is evolving globally to more stringent requirements for fuel efficiency and CO2 emissions, forcing the OEMs to adopt advanced powertrain technologies. Such changes are more evident in the light-duty road transportation sector compared to the heavy-duty road, marine and air transportation sectors. Here, a holistic review of the current and prospective regulations targeted at curbing transportation-based CO2 emissions is presented. For road transport, these include various government- and state-level policy initiatives such as the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) and CO2 emission standards and the zero emission mandates. For marine and aviation sectors, these include the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) regulations and aspirations targeted at reducing the CO2 footprint. The compliance options for these regulations are evaluated using a combination of fuels, engines, and hybridization in each transportation sector. Furthermore, a brief overview of how OEMs are working toward achieving these targets is presented. An overview of several advanced spark and compression ignition engine technologies with the potential to improve the fuel economy and CO2 emissions is presented. Finally, an overview of major disruptions that are changing the road-based transportation is presented and a balanced life cycle based policy approach is advocated.
    • Interpreting and Predicting Experimental Responses of Micro- and Nano-Devices via Dynamical Integrity

      Ruzziconi, Laura; Lenci, Stefano; Younis, Mohammad I. (Global Nonlinear Dynamics for Engineering Design and System Safety, Springer International Publishing, 2018-09-24) [Book Chapter]
      The present chapter highlights the importance of the dynamical integrity theory for micro and nanoapplications. Three case-studies of devices at different scales are presented (a capacitive accelerometer, a microbeam-based micro-electromechanical system, and a single-walled slacked carbon nanotube) and different issues commonly addressed in the engineering design are examined via dynamical integrity concepts. The iso-integrity curves are observed to follow exactly the experimental data. They are able to detect the parameter range where each attractor can be reliably observed in practice and where, instead, becomes vulnerable. Also, they may be used to simulate and predict the expected dynamics under different (smaller or larger) experimental disturbances. While referring to particular case-studies, we show the relevance of the dynamical integrity analysis for the engineering design of a mechanical system, in order to operate it in safe conditions, according to the desired outcome and depending on the expected disturbances.