Recent Submissions

  • Solving Acoustic Boundary Integral Equations Using High Performance Tile Low-Rank LU Factorization.

    Al-Harthi, Noha A.; Alomairy, Rabab M.; Akbudak, Kadir; Chen, Rui; Ltaief, Hatem; Bagci, Hakan; Keyes, David E. (High Performance Computing, Springer International Publishing, 2020-06-18) [Book Chapter]
    We design and develop a new high performance implementation of a fast direct LU-based solver using low-rank approximations on massively parallel systems. The LU factorization is the most time-consuming step in solving systems of linear equations in the context of analyzing acoustic scattering from large 3D objects. The matrix equation is obtained by discretizing the boundary integral of the exterior Helmholtz problem using a higher-order Nyström scheme. The main idea is to exploit the inherent data sparsity of the matrix operator by performing local tile-centric approximations while still capturing the most significant information. In particular, the proposed LU-based solver leverages the Tile Low-Rank (TLR) data compression format as implemented in the Hierarchical Computations on Manycore Architectures (HiCMA) library to decrease the complexity of “classical” dense direct solvers from cubic to quadratic order. We taskify the underlying boundary integral kernels to expose fine-grained computations. We then employ the dynamic runtime system StarPU to orchestrate the scheduling of computational tasks on shared and distributed-memory systems. The resulting asynchronous execution permits to compensate for the load imbalance due to the heterogeneous ranks, while mitigating the overhead of data motion. We assess the robustness of our TLR LU-based solver and study the qualitative impact when using different numerical accuracies. The new TLR LU factorization outperforms the state-of-the-art dense factorizations by up to an order of magnitude on various parallel systems, for analysis of scattering from large-scale 3D synthetic and real geometries.
  • Forecasting of Photovoltaic Solar Power Production Using LSTM Approach

    Harrou, Fouzi; Kadri, Farid; Sun, Ying (IntechOpen, 2020-04-01) [Book Chapter]
    Solar-based energy is becoming one of the most promising sources for producing power for residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Energy production based on solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has gained much attention from researchers and practitioners recently due to its desirable characteristics. However, the main difficulty in solar energy production is the volatility intermittent of photovoltaic system power generation, which is mainly due to weather conditions. For the large-scale solar farms, the power imbalance of the photovoltaic system may cause a significant loss in their economical profit. Accurate forecasting of the power output of PV systems in a short term is of great importance for daily/hourly efficient management of power grid production, delivery, and storage, as well as for decision-making on the energy market. The aim of this chapter is to provide reliable short-term forecasting of power generation of PV solar systems. Specifically, this chapter presents a long short-term memory (LSTM)-based deep learning approach for forecasting power generation of a PV system. This is motivated by the desirable features of LSTM to describe dependencies in time series data. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated using data from a 9 MWp grid-connected plant. Results show promising power forecasting results of LSTM.
  • Antenna-in-package Designs in Multilayered Low-temperature Co-fired Ceramic Platforms

    Shamim, Atif; Zhang, Haoran (Wiley, 2020-03-06) [Book Chapter]
    Antenna-in-package (AiP) is an antenna that is realized on the package of the driving circuit. Low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) is one of the mainstream technologies for AiP designs. This chapter focuses on AiP designs in LTCC technology. It discusses LTCC technology, before moving on to details of AiP design. LTCC technology is highly suitable for substrate-integrated waveguide-based antennas. This is because LTCC is a multilayered technology in which conductive vias are an integral part of the fabrication process. One of the main challenges blocking the widespread LTCC-based AiPs use is the improvement of LTCC fabrication resolution and repeatability. LTCC technology can use low-loss conductors for the metallization steps because the multilayered LTCC tapes are laminated and co-fired at relatively low temperatures.
  • Visualizing Protein Associations in Living Arabidopsis Embryo

    Long, Yuchen; Stahl, Yvonne; Weidtkamp-Peters, Stefanie; Blilou, Ikram (Springer US, 2020-01-24) [Protocol]
    Protein–protein interactions (PPI) are essential for a plethora of biological processes. These interactions can be visualized and quantified with spatial resolution using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measured by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) technology. Currently, FRET-FLIM is routinely used in cell biology, and it has become a powerful tool to map protein interactions in native environments. However, implementing this technology in living multicellular organism remains challenging, especially when dealing with developing plant embryos where tissues are confined in multiple cell layers preventing direct imaging. In this chapter, we describe a step-by-step protocol for studying PPI using FRET-FLIM of the two transcription factors SCARECROW and SHORTROOT in Arabidopsis embryos. We provide a detailed description from embryo isolation to data analysis and representation.
  • Plant Omics Data Center and CATchUP: web databases for effective gene mining utilizing public RNA-Seq-based transcriptome data

    Shenton, Matt; Kudo, Toru; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Nakamura, Yukino; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Yano, Kentaro (Wiley, 2019-12-13) [Book Chapter]
    Analysis using transcriptome data deposited in public repositories can advance scientific research and crop breeding with minimal extra effort and cost. To provide platforms for quick and easy gene mining from publicly available RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data of model and crop plants, we are maintaining two web databases: the Plant Omics Data Center (PODC, and CATchUP ( This chapter presents their functionality, summarizes their stored information and demonstrates a typical workflow using the databases, focusing on Medicago truncatula.
  • New Advances in Fast Methods of 2D NMR Experiments

    Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Alghrably, Mawadda; Al-Harthi, Samah; Gabriel Poulson, Benjamin; Szczepski, Kacper; Chandra, Kousik; Jaremko, Mariusz (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance [Working Title], IntechOpen, 2019-12-13) [Book Chapter]
    Although nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a potent analytical tool for identification, quantification, and structural elucidation, it suffers from inherently low sensitivity limitations. This chapter focuses on recently reported methods that enable quick acquisition of NMR spectra, as well as new methods of faster, efficient, and informative two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods. Fast and efficient data acquisition has risen in response to an increasing need to investigate chemical and biological processes in real time. Several new techniques have been successfully introduced. One example of this is band-selective optimized-flip-angle short-transient (SOFAST) NMR, which has opened the door to studying the kinetics of biological processes such as the phosphorylation of proteins. The fast recording of NMR spectra allows researchers to investigate time sensitive molecules that have limited stability under experimental conditions. The increasing awareness that molecular structures are dynamic, rather than static, has pushed some researchers to find alternatives to standard, time-consuming methods of 15N relaxation observables acquisition.
  • A Method for Extraction and LC-MS-Based Identification of Carotenoid-Derived Dialdehydes in Plants.

    Mi, Jianing; Jia, Kunpeng; Balakrishna, Aparna; Al-Babili, Salim (Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), Springer US, 2019-11-20) [Book Chapter]
    We developed a chemical derivatization based ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap MS) analytical method to identify low-abundant and instable carotenoid-derived dialdehydes (DIALs, diapocarotenoids) from plants. Application of this method enhances the MS response signal of DIALs, enabling the detection of diapocarotenoids, which is crucial for understanding the function of these compounds and for elucidating the carotenoid oxidative metabolic pathway in plants.
  • Determination of In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Plant Carotenoid Cleavage Oxygenases.

    Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes; Diretto, Gianfranco; Ahrazem, Oussama; Al-Babili, Salim (Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), Springer US, 2019-11-20) [Book Chapter]
    Carotenoid cleavage products, apocarotenoids, are biologically active compounds exerting important functions as chromophore, hormones, signaling molecules, volatiles, and pigments. Apocarotenoids are generally synthesized by the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) that comprise a ubiquitous family of enzymes. The activity of plant CCDs was unraveled more than 20 years ago, with the characterization of the maize VP14, the first identified CCD. The protocol developed to determine the activity of this enzyme in vitro is still being used, with minor modifications. In addition, in vivo procedures have been developed during these years, mainly based on the exploitation of Escherichia coli cells engineered to produce specific carotenoid substrates. Further, technological developments have led to significant improvements, contributing to a more efficient detection of the reaction products. This chapter provides an updated set of detailed protocols suitable for the in vitro and in vivo characterization of the activities of CCDs, starting from well-established methods.
  • Recent Progress on Phase Equilibrium Calculation in Subsurface Reservoirs Using Diffuse Interface Models

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Yiteng; Cai, Jianchao; Sun, Shuyu (Springer International Publishing, 2019-11-17) [Book Chapter]
    Compositional multiphase flow in subsurface porous media is becoming increasingly attractive due to issues related with enhanced oil recovery, greenhouse effect and global warming, and the urgent need for development in unconventional oil/gas reservoirs. One key effort prior to construct the mathematical model governing the compositional multiphase flow is to determine the phase compositions of the fluid mixture, and then calculate other related physical properties. In this paper, recent progress on phase equilibrium calculations in subsurface reservoirs have been reviewed and concluded with authors’ own analysis. Phase equilibrium calculation is the main approach to perform such calculation, which could be conducted using two different types of flash calculation algorithms: The NPT flash and NVT flash. NPT flash calculations are proposed early, well developed within the last few decades and now become the most commonly used method. However, it fails to remain the physical meanings in the solution as a cubic equation, derived from equation of state, is often needed to solve. Alternatively, NVT flash can handle the phase equilibrium calculations as well, without the pressure known a priori. Recently, Diffuse Interface Models, which were proved to keep a high consistency with thermodynamic laws, have been introduced in the phase calculation, incorporating the realistic equation of state (EOS), e.g. Peng-Robinson EOS. In NVT flash, Helmholtz free energy is minimized instead of Gibbs free energy used in NPT flash, and this energy density is treated with convex-concave splitting technique. A semi-implicit numerical scheme is designed to process the dynamic model, which ensures the thermodynamic stability and then preserve the fast convergence property. A positive definite coefficient matrix is designed to meet the Onsager Reciprocal Principle so as to keep the entropy increasing property in the presence of capillary pressure, which is required by the thermodynamic laws. The robustness of the proposed algorithm is verified via two numerical examples, one of which has up to seven components. In the complex fluid mixture, special phenomena could be capture from the global minimum of TPD functions as well as the phase envelope resulted from the phase equilibrium calculations. It can be found that the boundary between the single-phase and vapor–liquid phase regions will move in the presence of capillary pressure, and then the area of each region will change accordingly. Some remarks have been concluded at the end, as well as suggestions on potential topics for future studies.
  • Nanoparticles applied in membrane bioreactors: Potential impact on reactor performance and microbial communities

    Cheng, Hong; Hong, Pei-Ying (Elsevier, 2019-11-03) [Book Chapter]
    Both aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are able to remove contaminants of emerging concern from wastewater at high efficiencies. However, the main bottleneck of this technology is membrane biofouling. Coating heavy metal nanoparticles on the surface of membrane has been proposed as an effective antifouling strategy. Nevertheless, metal nanoparticles can potentially result in detrimental impact on the overall functionality of the MBRs. This book chapter aims to understand how nanoparticles impact MBRs. To achieve this aim, the chapter starts off by illustrating the antibacterial mechanisms of nanoparticles. The chapter then critically reviews past studies that illustrate the antibacterial effect of nanoparticles against pure bacterial cultures and biofilm-associated populations. Finally, the chapter evaluates if the presence of nanoparticles would affect the overall performance of aerobic and anaerobic biological processes. Specifically, the impact of heavy metal nanoparticles on nitrogen and phosphorus removal process was discussed. The effect on anaerobic fermentation, which is comprised of hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis, and methanogenesis, was also reviewed.
  • Microscopy of Nanoporous Crystals

    Ma, Yanhang; Han, Lu; Liu, Zheng; Mayoral, Alvaro; Díaz, Isabel; Oleynikov, Peter; Ohsuna, Tetsu; Han, Yu; Pan, Ming; Zhu, Yihan; Sakamoto, Yasuhiro; Che, Shunai; Terasaki, Osamu (Springer International Publishing, 2019-11-02) [Book Chapter]
    Nanoporous crystals are widely studied and used for applications in H2 storage, CO2 capture, petrochemical catalysis and many other applications, yet the imaging of their atomic structure has proven difficult because of their radiation sensitivity and the small size of these microcrystals. This chapter describes the development of the new modes of electron microscopy needed to study them, and compares these with traditional methods such as x-ray diffraction. This class of materials has traditionally been dominated by the zeolites and zeotype materials, but has recently been expanded to include meso-/macroporous crystals and other new framework structures (MOFs, ZIFs COFs, etc.). Using different building blocks or units, versatile crystal structures have been synthesized for various applications. Their properties and functions are governed primarily by periodic arrangements of pores and/or cavities and their surroundings with various atomic moieties inside crystals. In this chapter, electron microscopy studies of nanoporous materials are discussed from different perspectives. Special attention is paid to the observation of fine defect structures, through careful analysis of electron diffraction, high-resolution images and spectroscopy data. The experimental conditions for imaging beam-sensitive materials, such as MOFs, are described. The contents have been divided into sections based on the types of materials and their geometric features. Examples of structure analysis of various nanoporous materials are given and discussed. New technical developments and existing challenges are described.
  • Block copolymer membranes

    Nunes, Suzana Pereira (Elsevier, 2019-10-18) [Book Chapter]
    Block copolymers have a rich and well-defined morphology in the melt, guided by the interaction between different blocks. When applied to membranes, block copolymers offer the possibility of precisely tuning them at the nanoscale level and combining materials with different properties in one single membrane. Ideally, by choosing the right segments and the proper membrane fabrication process, block copolymers could add advantages for various applications. Here, the state of the art and perspectives in the field of block copolymer membranes will be summarized and critically discussed. They have been used for dense membrane targeting applications in gas and liquid separations, but the most rapidly developing field is the preparation of membranes by self-assembly combined with solvent-induced phase separation. The principles and most relevant factors influencing the morphology of these membranes are described, and the advantages, drawbacks, and perspectives are discussed, also in face of the manufacture sustainability.
  • Challenges and Directions for Green Chemical Engineering—Role of Nanoscale Materials

    Livingston, Andrew; Trout, Bernhardt L.; Horvath, Istvan T.; Johnson, Martin D.; Vaccaro, Luigi; Coronas, Joaquin; Babbitt, Callie W.; Zhang, Xiangliang; Pradeep, Thalappil; Drioli, Enrico; Hayler, John D.; Tam, Kam C.; Kappe, C. Oliver; Fane, Anthony G.; Szekely, Gyorgy (Elsevier, 2019-10-18) [Book Chapter]
    Nanotechnology and nanomaterials are among the most significant scientific and industrial research breakthroughs of the 21st century. With the rapid globalization of science, chemists, materials scientists, and chemical engineers are synergistically working together worldwide to understand how to manipulate matter for the benefit of humankind. The Sustainable Development Goals set by the United Nations provide a blueprint through which a thriving and more sustainable future can be achieved for all. These goals address the global challenges we face, and most of them are directly affected by chemical manufacturing. Consequently, it is our responsibility to design, manufacture and recycle chemicals, and develop processes, considering sustainability. There are several emerging areas of nanoscale engineering with great promise for sustainable chemical engineering. There are a plethora of innovative materials and methodologies, all with the potential to enable sustainable industrial development, on the rise. This chapter gives a perspective on sustainable nanoscale engineering through the view of numerous academic and industrial experts.
  • Autonomous Cooperative Routing for Mission-Critical Applications

    Bader, Ahmed; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim (Springer International Publishing, 2019-09-19) [Book Chapter]
    We are entering an era where three previously decoupled domains of technology are rapidly converging together: robotics and wireless communications. We have seen giant leaps and improvements in computational efficiency of vision processing and sensing circuitry coupled with continuously miniaturized form factors. As a result, a new wave of mission-critical systems has been unleashed in fields like emergency response, public safety, law enforcement, search and rescue, as well as industrial asset mapping. There is growing evidence showing that the efficacy of team-based mission-critical systems is substantially improved when situational awareness data, such as real-time video, is disseminated within the network. Field commanders or operation managers can make great use of live vision feeds to make educated decisions in the face of unfolding circumstances or events. In the likely absence of adequate cellular service, this translates into the need for a mobile ad hoc networking technology (MANET) that supports high throughput but more importantly low end-to-end latency. However, classical MANET technologies fall short in terms of scalability, bandwidth, and latency; all three metrics being quite essential for mission-critical applications. The real bottleneck has always been in how fast packets can be routed through the network. To that end, autonomous cooperative routing (ACR) has gained traction as the most viable MANET routing proposition. Compared to classical MANET routing schemes, ACR is poised to offer up to 2X better throughput, more than 4X reduction in end-to-end latency, while observing a given target of transport rate normalized to energy consumption. Nonetheless, ACR is also associated with a few practical implementation challenges. If these go unaddressed, it will deem ACR practically infeasible. In this chapter, efficient and low-complexity remedies to those issues are presented, analyzed, and validated. The validation is based on field experiments carried out using software-defined radio (SDR) platforms. This chapter sheds light on the underlying networking challenges and practical remedies for ACR to fulfill its promise.
  • Chapter 3: Precise Synthesis of Polyethylene-based Star Polymers: From Anionic Polymerization to Polyhomologation

    Zhang, Zhen; Hadjichristidis, Nikos (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019-09-09) [Book Chapter]
    Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is indispensable for many applications in our everyday life due to its low cost, excellent physical properties, and easy processability. The rheological behavior that leads to this enhanced processability of LDPE is attributed to the presence of long chain branching (LCB). The linear versions of PE, namely high-density PE (HDPE), and linear low-density PE (LLDPE) both possess superior physical properties but poor processability. Since industrial PEs are not well-defined, model PEs with different branched macromolecular architectures are needed to understand the behavior of the different forms of PE and to improve their properties. Among them, star polymers consisting of several linear chains linked together to a central junction point have attracted the attention of scientists because they constitute the simplest form of branching. In this chapter, the strategies leading to well-defined PE stars from the mature anionic polymerization of butadiene and hydrogenation to the recently discovered polyhomologation (C1 polymerization) of dimethylsulfoxonium methylylide methods are presented. The ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of monocyclic alkenes followed by hydrogenation and the Pd-diimine catalyzed
  • InAs/InP quantum-dash lasers

    Khan, M. Z.M.; Alkhazraji, E. A.; Khan, M. T.A.; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S. (Elsevier, 2019-08-09) [Book Chapter]
    This chapter introduces a new class of InAs/InP based ultra-broadband Quantum-dash (Qdash) lasers. It starts by presenting the perspective of its broadband & inhomogeneous nature and the potential in energy efficient optical communication. Firstly, the epitaxial growth of InAs/InP Qdash material system and various works on optimization is discussed. Then, device level characterization of InAs/InP Qdash Fabry-Perot lasers with chronological improvement in their performance is underlined, in particular employment of assisting injection and mode locking techniques. The chapter concludes by summarizing various demonstrations of C- and L-band Qdash laser diode as a cohesive light source in wavelength division multiplexed optical communication system, and unified transmitter source for next generation optical access networks.
  • Ultraviolet quantum well lasers

    Liao, Che-Hao; Sun, Haiding; Li, Xiaohang (Elsevier, 2019-08-09) [Book Chapter]
    Visible to infrared semiconductor lasers have seen increasing applications in important areas such as display, lighting, data storage, telecommunication, sensing, and manufacturing due to compact size, excellent reliability, and power efficiency. However, UV semiconductor lasers still have much inferior performance compared to the solid-state and gas lasers due to different challenges including material quality, doping efficiency, carrier injection efficiency, and index reduction. This chapter reviews the cutting-edge development of the UV lasers including UVA, UVB, and UVC spectra to provide overview of this critical device technology.
  • Metagenomic Methods: From Seawater to the Database

    Reza, Md. Shaheed; Kobiyama, Atsushi; Rashid, Jonaira; Yamada, Yuichiro; Ikeda, Yuri; Ikeda, Daisuke; Mizusawa, Nanami; Yanagisawa, Saki; Ikeo, Kazuho; Sato, Shigeru; Ogata, Takehiko; Kudo, Toshiaki; Kaga, Shinnosuke; Watanabe, Shiho; Naiki, Kimiaki; Kaga, Yoshimasa; Segawa, Satoshi; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Gojobori, Takashi; Watabe, Shugo (Springer Singapore, 2019-07-25) [Book Chapter]
    In this article, methods or techniques of metagenomics including targeted 16S/18S rRNA analyses and shotgun sequencing will be discussed. It is sometimes difficult, especially for beginners, to follow the manufacturer’s recommendation as mentioned in the protocol and to go through different steps from the preparation of starting material (e.g., DNA), library preparation, and so on. We will try to explain all the steps in detail and share our experience here. It all starts with collection of samples and collection of ecological/environmental metadata followed by sample fractionation (optional), extraction of DNA, sequencing, and finally data analyses to interpret results. Sample collection has always been the most important part of a study as it requires proper planning, a good workforce to execute, permission(s) of sampling from appropriate authority, and precaution(s) about endangered species during sampling. Here, we first describe methodology for a shallow river and in the later section methodology for a deep marine bay. In either case, slight modifications can be made to succeed in sampling. Determination of physicochemical parameters as metadata simultaneously is also an important task. These samples are then processed to extract DNA which needs to be representative of all cells present in the sample. Finally, sequencing is done by a next-generation sequencer, and data analyses are completed. Through these methods, scientists are now able to overcome the unculturability problem of more than 99% of environmental microorganisms and uncovered functional gene diversity of environmental microorganisms.
  • Marine Metagenomic Sequence Counts of Reads Assigned to Taxa Consistently Proportionate to Read Counts Obtained for per g of Seawater Sample

    Kudo, Toshiaki; Reza, Md. Shaheed; Kobiyama, Atsushi; Rashid, Jonaira; Yamada, Yuichiro; Ikeda, Yuri; Ikeda, Daisuke; Mizusawa, Nanami; Yanagisawa, Saki; Ikeo, Kazuho; Sato, Shigeru; Ogata, Takehiko; Kaga, Shinnosuke; Watanabe, Shiho; Naiki, Kimiaki; Kaga, Yoshimasa; Segawa, Satoshi; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Gojobori, Takashi; Watabe, Shugo (Springer Singapore, 2019-07-25) [Book Chapter]
    Development of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies has enabled scientists to generate vast amounts of genetic information that may provide a comprehensive understanding of key roles played by environmental microorganisms. Generally the microorganisms inhabit a particular niche and correlate well with environmental changes. It is accepted that the read counts obtained through metagenomic analyses correlate semi-quantitatively with the relative abundance of bacterial species. In our marine metagenomic study conducted on the Ofunato Bay, Iwate Prefecture, Japan, we observed such correlation which exists for bacterioplankton Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique, identified as the dominant bacterial species of the bay. Shotgun metagenomic analyses identified three strains of Ca. Pelagibacter in the bay, viz., dmdA-HTCC1062, dmdA-HTCC9022, and O19-dmdA, that showed a dynamic change throughout the year particularly in the 10-m depth zone. Interestingly, the total abundances of those strains that fall in the Ca. Pelagibacter genus were found to correlate well with the read counts per g seawater samples used for analyses. It is assumed that whole-genome sequence (WGS) reads for members of the metagenome would show similar trend provided that proper precautions are taken to ensure collection of representative sample from the environment.
  • Influences of Diurnal Sampling Bias on Fixed-Point Monitoring of Plankton Biodiversity Determined Using a Massively Parallel Sequencing-Based Technique

    Nagai, Satoshi; Nishi, Noriko; Urushizaki, Shingo; Onitsuka, Goh; Yasuike, Motoshige; Nakamura, Yoji; Fujiwara, Atushi; Tajimi, Seisuke; Kobayashi, Takanori; Gojobori, Takashi; Ototake, Mitsuru (Springer Singapore, 2019-07-24) [Book Chapter]
    In this study, we investigated the influence of diurnal sampling bias on the community structure of plankton by comparing the biodiversity among seawater samples (n = 9) obtained every 3 h for 24 h by using massively parallel sequencing (MPS)-based plankton monitoring at a fixed point conducted at Himedo seaport in Yatsushiro Sea, Japan. During seawater sampling, the semidiurnal tidal current having an amplitude of 0.3 m s−1 was dominant, and the westward residual current driven by the northeasterly wind was continuously observed during the 24-h monitoring. Therefore, the relative abundance of plankton species apparently fluctuated among the samples, but no significant difference was noted according to G-test (p > 0.05). Significant differences were observed between the samples obtained from a different locality and at different dates, suggesting that the influence of diurnal sampling bias on plankton diversity is acceptable and data taken at a certain time in a day can be used as the representative one.

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