Recent Submissions

  • The Prager–Synge theorem in reconstruction based a posteriori error estimation

    Bertrand, Fleurianne; Boffi, Daniele (American Mathematical Society, 2020-07-30) [Book Chapter]
    In this paper we review the hypercircle method of Prager and Synge. This theory inspired several studies and induced an active research in the area of a posteriori error analysis. In particular, we review the Braess–Schoberl error estimator in the context of the Poisson problem. We discuss adaptive finite element schemes based on two variants of the estimator and we prove the convergence and optimality of the resulting algorithms.
  • Cargo-delivering nanodiamonds

    Moosa, Basem; Khashab, Niveen M. (CRC Press, 2020-07-10) [Book Chapter]
    More than 50 years ago, nanodiamonds (NDs) were first discovered in Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR), where they were produced by detonation reaction of carbon-based explosives. They remained essentially unknown to the rest of the world, for many reasons including security and the lack of industrial interests, until the end of the 1980s. A number of important discoveries in the late 1990s led to a wide interest in these nanoparticles (Figure 23.1). By then, mass production of NDs had already started in different countries (Osawa 2010).
  • An Expanded Mixed Finite Element Method for Space Fractional Darcy Flow in Porous Media.

    Chen, Huangxin; Sun, Shuyu (Computational Science – ICCS 2020, Springer International Publishing, 2020-07-02) [Book Chapter]
    In this paper an expanded mixed formulation is introduced to solve the two dimensional space fractional Darcy flow in porous media. By introducing an auxiliary vector, we derive a new mixed formulation and the well-possedness of the formulation can be established. Then the locally mass-conservative expanded mixed finite element method is applied for the solution. Numerical results are shown to verify the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.
  • Forget About Electron Micrographs: A Novel Guide for Using 3D Models for Quantitative Analysis of Dense Reconstructions

    Boges, Daniya; Agus, Marco; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Cali, Corrado (Springer US, 2020-06-29) [Book Chapter]
    With the rapid evolvement in the automation of serial micrographs, acquiring fast and reliably giga- to terabytes of data is becoming increasingly common. Optical, or physical sectioning, and subsequent imaging of biological tissue at high resolution, offers the chance to postprocess, segment, and reconstruct micro- and nanoscopical structures, and then reveal spatial arrangements previously inaccessible or hardly imaginable with simple, single section, two-dimensional images. In some cases, three-dimensional models highlighted peculiar morphologies in a way that two-dimensional representations cannot be considered representative of that particular object morphology anymore, like mitochondria for instance. Observations like these are taking scientists toward a more common use of 3D models to formulate functional hypothesis, based on morphology. Because such models are so rich in details, we developed tools allowing for performing qualitative, visual assessments, as well as quantification directly in 3D. In this chapter we will revise our working pipeline and show a step-by-step guide to analyze our dataset.
  • Computational singular perturbation method and tangential stretching rate analysis of large scale simulations of reactive flows: Feature tracking, time scale characterization, and cause/effect identification. Part 1, basic concepts

    Valorani, M.; Creta, F.; Ciottoli, P. P.; Malpica Galassi, R.; Goussis, D. A.; Najm, H. N.; Paolucci, S.; Im, Hong G.; Tingas, E. A.; Manias, D. M.; Parente, A.; Li, Z.; Grenga, T. (Springer International Publishing, 2020-05-28) [Book Chapter]
    This chapter provides a review of the basic ideas at the core of the Computational Singular Perturbation (CSP) method and the Tangential Stretching Rate (TSR) analysis. It includes a coherent summary of the theoretical foundations of these two methodologies while emphasizing theirmutual interconnections. The main theoretical findings are presented in a systematic fashion. Their virtues and limitations will be discussed with reference to auto-ignition systems, laminar and turbulent premixed flames, and non-premixed jet flames. The material presented in the chapter constitutes an effective guideline for further studies.
  • Computational singular perturbation method and tangential stretching rate analysis of large scale simulations of reactive flows: Feature tracking, time scale characterization, and cause/effect identification. Part 2, analyses of ignition systems, laminar and turbulent flames

    Valorani, M.; Creta, F.; Ciottoli, P. P.; Malpica Galassi, R.; Goussis, D. A.; Najm, H. N.; Paolucci, S.; Im, Hong G.; Tingas, E. A.; Manias, D. M.; Parente, A.; Li, Z.; Grenga, T. (Springer International Publishing, 2020-05-28) [Book Chapter]
    Chapter 3 summarized the highlights of the concepts behind the CSP method and the TSR analysis. In this chapter, we will discuss a few applications of these techniques.
  • A Novel Low-Temperature Thermal Desalination Technology Using Direct-Contact Spray Method

    Chen, Qian; Burhan, Muhammad; Wakil Shahzard, Muhammad; Alrowais, Raid Naif; Ybyraiymkul, Doskhan; Akhtar, Faheem; Li, Yong; Ng, Kim Choon (IntechOpen, 2020-05-28) [Book Chapter]
    Due to the emerging water crisis, the global desalination capacity has been expanding exponentially in the past few decades, leading to substantial amount of primary energy consumption. Therefore, the exploration of energy-efficient desalination processes and alternative energy sources has been the subject of great research interests. The spray-assisted low-temperature desalination (SLTD) system is a novel method for desalination that enables efficient renewable energy utilization. It works on the direct-contact spray evaporation/condensation mechanism and uses only hollow chambers. The merits include enhanced heat and mass transfer, lower initial and operational costs, and reduced scaling and fouling issues. This chapter presents a study on the SLTD system driven by sensible heat sources. The working principle of the system will be introduced first. Then a thermodynamic analysis will be presented to obtain the freshwater productivity under different design and operational conditions. Additionally, the energy utilization level will be quantified to highlight the energy wastage when operating with sensible heat sources. Afterward, the system configuration will be modified to maximize the utilization of sensible heat sources and promote productivity. Finally economic viability of the modified design will be evaluated.
  • Forecasting of Photovoltaic Solar Power Production Using LSTM Approach

    Harrou, Fouzi; Kadri, Farid; Sun, Ying (IntechOpen, 2020-04-01) [Book Chapter]
    Solar-based energy is becoming one of the most promising sources for producing power for residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Energy production based on solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has gained much attention from researchers and practitioners recently due to its desirable characteristics. However, the main difficulty in solar energy production is the volatility intermittent of photovoltaic system power generation, which is mainly due to weather conditions. For the large-scale solar farms, the power imbalance of the photovoltaic system may cause a significant loss in their economical profit. Accurate forecasting of the power output of PV systems in a short term is of great importance for daily/hourly efficient management of power grid production, delivery, and storage, as well as for decision-making on the energy market. The aim of this chapter is to provide reliable short-term forecasting of power generation of PV solar systems. Specifically, this chapter presents a long short-term memory (LSTM)-based deep learning approach for forecasting power generation of a PV system. This is motivated by the desirable features of LSTM to describe dependencies in time series data. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated using data from a 9 MWp grid-connected plant. Results show promising power forecasting results of LSTM.
  • Antenna-in-package Designs in Multilayered Low-temperature Co-fired Ceramic Platforms

    Shamim, Atif; Zhang, Haoran (Wiley, 2020-03-06) [Book Chapter]
    Antenna-in-package (AiP) is an antenna that is realized on the package of the driving circuit. Low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) is one of the mainstream technologies for AiP designs. This chapter focuses on AiP designs in LTCC technology. It discusses LTCC technology, before moving on to details of AiP design. LTCC technology is highly suitable for substrate-integrated waveguide-based antennas. This is because LTCC is a multilayered technology in which conductive vias are an integral part of the fabrication process. One of the main challenges blocking the widespread LTCC-based AiPs use is the improvement of LTCC fabrication resolution and repeatability. LTCC technology can use low-loss conductors for the metallization steps because the multilayered LTCC tapes are laminated and co-fired at relatively low temperatures.
  • Visualizing Protein Associations in Living Arabidopsis Embryo

    Long, Yuchen; Stahl, Yvonne; Weidtkamp-Peters, Stefanie; Blilou, Ikram (Springer US, 2020-01-24) [Protocol]
    Protein–protein interactions (PPI) are essential for a plethora of biological processes. These interactions can be visualized and quantified with spatial resolution using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measured by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) technology. Currently, FRET-FLIM is routinely used in cell biology, and it has become a powerful tool to map protein interactions in native environments. However, implementing this technology in living multicellular organism remains challenging, especially when dealing with developing plant embryos where tissues are confined in multiple cell layers preventing direct imaging. In this chapter, we describe a step-by-step protocol for studying PPI using FRET-FLIM of the two transcription factors SCARECROW and SHORTROOT in Arabidopsis embryos. We provide a detailed description from embryo isolation to data analysis and representation.
  • Plant Omics Data Center and CATchUP: web databases for effective gene mining utilizing public RNA-Seq-based transcriptome data

    Shenton, Matt; Kudo, Toru; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Nakamura, Yukino; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Yano, Kentaro (Wiley, 2019-12-13) [Book Chapter]
    Analysis using transcriptome data deposited in public repositories can advance scientific research and crop breeding with minimal extra effort and cost. To provide platforms for quick and easy gene mining from publicly available RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data of model and crop plants, we are maintaining two web databases: the Plant Omics Data Center (PODC, and CATchUP ( This chapter presents their functionality, summarizes their stored information and demonstrates a typical workflow using the databases, focusing on Medicago truncatula.
  • New Advances in Fast Methods of 2D NMR Experiments

    Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Alghrably, Mawadda; Al-Harthi, Samah; Gabriel Poulson, Benjamin; Szczepski, Kacper; Chandra, Kousik; Jaremko, Mariusz (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance [Working Title], IntechOpen, 2019-12-13) [Book Chapter]
    Although nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a potent analytical tool for identification, quantification, and structural elucidation, it suffers from inherently low sensitivity limitations. This chapter focuses on recently reported methods that enable quick acquisition of NMR spectra, as well as new methods of faster, efficient, and informative two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods. Fast and efficient data acquisition has risen in response to an increasing need to investigate chemical and biological processes in real time. Several new techniques have been successfully introduced. One example of this is band-selective optimized-flip-angle short-transient (SOFAST) NMR, which has opened the door to studying the kinetics of biological processes such as the phosphorylation of proteins. The fast recording of NMR spectra allows researchers to investigate time sensitive molecules that have limited stability under experimental conditions. The increasing awareness that molecular structures are dynamic, rather than static, has pushed some researchers to find alternatives to standard, time-consuming methods of 15N relaxation observables acquisition.
  • A Method for Extraction and LC-MS-Based Identification of Carotenoid-Derived Dialdehydes in Plants.

    Mi, Jianing; Jia, Kunpeng; Balakrishna, Aparna; Al-Babili, Salim (Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), Springer US, 2019-11-20) [Book Chapter]
    We developed a chemical derivatization based ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap MS) analytical method to identify low-abundant and instable carotenoid-derived dialdehydes (DIALs, diapocarotenoids) from plants. Application of this method enhances the MS response signal of DIALs, enabling the detection of diapocarotenoids, which is crucial for understanding the function of these compounds and for elucidating the carotenoid oxidative metabolic pathway in plants.
  • Determination of In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Plant Carotenoid Cleavage Oxygenases.

    Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes; Diretto, Gianfranco; Ahrazem, Oussama; Al-Babili, Salim (Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), Springer US, 2019-11-20) [Book Chapter]
    Carotenoid cleavage products, apocarotenoids, are biologically active compounds exerting important functions as chromophore, hormones, signaling molecules, volatiles, and pigments. Apocarotenoids are generally synthesized by the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) that comprise a ubiquitous family of enzymes. The activity of plant CCDs was unraveled more than 20 years ago, with the characterization of the maize VP14, the first identified CCD. The protocol developed to determine the activity of this enzyme in vitro is still being used, with minor modifications. In addition, in vivo procedures have been developed during these years, mainly based on the exploitation of Escherichia coli cells engineered to produce specific carotenoid substrates. Further, technological developments have led to significant improvements, contributing to a more efficient detection of the reaction products. This chapter provides an updated set of detailed protocols suitable for the in vitro and in vivo characterization of the activities of CCDs, starting from well-established methods.
  • Recent Progress on Phase Equilibrium Calculation in Subsurface Reservoirs Using Diffuse Interface Models

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Yiteng; Cai, Jianchao; Sun, Shuyu (Springer International Publishing, 2019-11-17) [Book Chapter]
    Compositional multiphase flow in subsurface porous media is becoming increasingly attractive due to issues related with enhanced oil recovery, greenhouse effect and global warming, and the urgent need for development in unconventional oil/gas reservoirs. One key effort prior to construct the mathematical model governing the compositional multiphase flow is to determine the phase compositions of the fluid mixture, and then calculate other related physical properties. In this paper, recent progress on phase equilibrium calculations in subsurface reservoirs have been reviewed and concluded with authors’ own analysis. Phase equilibrium calculation is the main approach to perform such calculation, which could be conducted using two different types of flash calculation algorithms: The NPT flash and NVT flash. NPT flash calculations are proposed early, well developed within the last few decades and now become the most commonly used method. However, it fails to remain the physical meanings in the solution as a cubic equation, derived from equation of state, is often needed to solve. Alternatively, NVT flash can handle the phase equilibrium calculations as well, without the pressure known a priori. Recently, Diffuse Interface Models, which were proved to keep a high consistency with thermodynamic laws, have been introduced in the phase calculation, incorporating the realistic equation of state (EOS), e.g. Peng-Robinson EOS. In NVT flash, Helmholtz free energy is minimized instead of Gibbs free energy used in NPT flash, and this energy density is treated with convex-concave splitting technique. A semi-implicit numerical scheme is designed to process the dynamic model, which ensures the thermodynamic stability and then preserve the fast convergence property. A positive definite coefficient matrix is designed to meet the Onsager Reciprocal Principle so as to keep the entropy increasing property in the presence of capillary pressure, which is required by the thermodynamic laws. The robustness of the proposed algorithm is verified via two numerical examples, one of which has up to seven components. In the complex fluid mixture, special phenomena could be capture from the global minimum of TPD functions as well as the phase envelope resulted from the phase equilibrium calculations. It can be found that the boundary between the single-phase and vapor–liquid phase regions will move in the presence of capillary pressure, and then the area of each region will change accordingly. Some remarks have been concluded at the end, as well as suggestions on potential topics for future studies.
  • Nanoparticles applied in membrane bioreactors: Potential impact on reactor performance and microbial communities

    Cheng, Hong; Hong, Pei-Ying (Elsevier, 2019-11-03) [Book Chapter]
    Both aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are able to remove contaminants of emerging concern from wastewater at high efficiencies. However, the main bottleneck of this technology is membrane biofouling. Coating heavy metal nanoparticles on the surface of membrane has been proposed as an effective antifouling strategy. Nevertheless, metal nanoparticles can potentially result in detrimental impact on the overall functionality of the MBRs. This book chapter aims to understand how nanoparticles impact MBRs. To achieve this aim, the chapter starts off by illustrating the antibacterial mechanisms of nanoparticles. The chapter then critically reviews past studies that illustrate the antibacterial effect of nanoparticles against pure bacterial cultures and biofilm-associated populations. Finally, the chapter evaluates if the presence of nanoparticles would affect the overall performance of aerobic and anaerobic biological processes. Specifically, the impact of heavy metal nanoparticles on nitrogen and phosphorus removal process was discussed. The effect on anaerobic fermentation, which is comprised of hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis, and methanogenesis, was also reviewed.
  • Microscopy of Nanoporous Crystals

    Ma, Yanhang; Han, Lu; Liu, Zheng; Mayoral, Alvaro; Díaz, Isabel; Oleynikov, Peter; Ohsuna, Tetsu; Han, Yu; Pan, Ming; Zhu, Yihan; Sakamoto, Yasuhiro; Che, Shunai; Terasaki, Osamu (Springer International Publishing, 2019-11-02) [Book Chapter]
    Nanoporous crystals are widely studied and used for applications in H2 storage, CO2 capture, petrochemical catalysis and many other applications, yet the imaging of their atomic structure has proven difficult because of their radiation sensitivity and the small size of these microcrystals. This chapter describes the development of the new modes of electron microscopy needed to study them, and compares these with traditional methods such as x-ray diffraction. This class of materials has traditionally been dominated by the zeolites and zeotype materials, but has recently been expanded to include meso-/macroporous crystals and other new framework structures (MOFs, ZIFs COFs, etc.). Using different building blocks or units, versatile crystal structures have been synthesized for various applications. Their properties and functions are governed primarily by periodic arrangements of pores and/or cavities and their surroundings with various atomic moieties inside crystals. In this chapter, electron microscopy studies of nanoporous materials are discussed from different perspectives. Special attention is paid to the observation of fine defect structures, through careful analysis of electron diffraction, high-resolution images and spectroscopy data. The experimental conditions for imaging beam-sensitive materials, such as MOFs, are described. The contents have been divided into sections based on the types of materials and their geometric features. Examples of structure analysis of various nanoporous materials are given and discussed. New technical developments and existing challenges are described.
  • Block copolymer membranes

    Nunes, Suzana Pereira (Elsevier, 2019-10-18) [Book Chapter]
    Block copolymers have a rich and well-defined morphology in the melt, guided by the interaction between different blocks. When applied to membranes, block copolymers offer the possibility of precisely tuning them at the nanoscale level and combining materials with different properties in one single membrane. Ideally, by choosing the right segments and the proper membrane fabrication process, block copolymers could add advantages for various applications. Here, the state of the art and perspectives in the field of block copolymer membranes will be summarized and critically discussed. They have been used for dense membrane targeting applications in gas and liquid separations, but the most rapidly developing field is the preparation of membranes by self-assembly combined with solvent-induced phase separation. The principles and most relevant factors influencing the morphology of these membranes are described, and the advantages, drawbacks, and perspectives are discussed, also in face of the manufacture sustainability.
  • Challenges and Directions for Green Chemical Engineering—Role of Nanoscale Materials

    Livingston, Andrew; Trout, Bernhardt L.; Horvath, Istvan T.; Johnson, Martin D.; Vaccaro, Luigi; Coronas, Joaquin; Babbitt, Callie W.; Zhang, Xiangliang; Pradeep, Thalappil; Drioli, Enrico; Hayler, John D.; Tam, Kam C.; Kappe, C. Oliver; Fane, Anthony G.; Szekely, Gyorgy (Elsevier, 2019-10-18) [Book Chapter]
    Nanotechnology and nanomaterials are among the most significant scientific and industrial research breakthroughs of the 21st century. With the rapid globalization of science, chemists, materials scientists, and chemical engineers are synergistically working together worldwide to understand how to manipulate matter for the benefit of humankind. The Sustainable Development Goals set by the United Nations provide a blueprint through which a thriving and more sustainable future can be achieved for all. These goals address the global challenges we face, and most of them are directly affected by chemical manufacturing. Consequently, it is our responsibility to design, manufacture and recycle chemicals, and develop processes, considering sustainability. There are several emerging areas of nanoscale engineering with great promise for sustainable chemical engineering. There are a plethora of innovative materials and methodologies, all with the potential to enable sustainable industrial development, on the rise. This chapter gives a perspective on sustainable nanoscale engineering through the view of numerous academic and industrial experts.
  • Autonomous Cooperative Routing for Mission-Critical Applications

    Bader, Ahmed; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim (Springer International Publishing, 2019-09-19) [Book Chapter]
    We are entering an era where three previously decoupled domains of technology are rapidly converging together: robotics and wireless communications. We have seen giant leaps and improvements in computational efficiency of vision processing and sensing circuitry coupled with continuously miniaturized form factors. As a result, a new wave of mission-critical systems has been unleashed in fields like emergency response, public safety, law enforcement, search and rescue, as well as industrial asset mapping. There is growing evidence showing that the efficacy of team-based mission-critical systems is substantially improved when situational awareness data, such as real-time video, is disseminated within the network. Field commanders or operation managers can make great use of live vision feeds to make educated decisions in the face of unfolding circumstances or events. In the likely absence of adequate cellular service, this translates into the need for a mobile ad hoc networking technology (MANET) that supports high throughput but more importantly low end-to-end latency. However, classical MANET technologies fall short in terms of scalability, bandwidth, and latency; all three metrics being quite essential for mission-critical applications. The real bottleneck has always been in how fast packets can be routed through the network. To that end, autonomous cooperative routing (ACR) has gained traction as the most viable MANET routing proposition. Compared to classical MANET routing schemes, ACR is poised to offer up to 2X better throughput, more than 4X reduction in end-to-end latency, while observing a given target of transport rate normalized to energy consumption. Nonetheless, ACR is also associated with a few practical implementation challenges. If these go unaddressed, it will deem ACR practically infeasible. In this chapter, efficient and low-complexity remedies to those issues are presented, analyzed, and validated. The validation is based on field experiments carried out using software-defined radio (SDR) platforms. This chapter sheds light on the underlying networking challenges and practical remedies for ACR to fulfill its promise.

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