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dc.contributor.authorLi, Zhenyu
dc.contributor.authorValladares Linares, Rodrigo
dc.contributor.authorBucs, Szilard
dc.contributor.authorAubry, Cyril
dc.contributor.authorGhaffour, NorEddine
dc.contributor.authorVrouwenvelder, Johannes S.
dc.contributor.authorAmy, Gary L.
dc.date.accessioned2015-08-03T12:34:27Z
dc.date.available2015-08-03T12:34:27Z
dc.date.issued2015-02-07
dc.identifier.citationLi, Z., Valladares Linares, R., Bucs, S., Aubry, C., Ghaffour, N., Vrouwenvelder, J. S., & Amy, G. (2015). Calcium carbonate scaling in seawater desalination by ammonia–carbon dioxide forward osmosis: Mechanism and implications. Journal of Membrane Science, 481, 36–43. doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2014.12.055
dc.identifier.issn03767388
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.memsci.2014.12.055
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/564157
dc.description.abstractForward osmosis (FO) is an osmotically driven membrane process, where the membrane separates a draw solution (DS) with high salinity from a feed solution (FS) with low salinity. There can be a counter direction flow of salt (i.e., salt leakage) that may interact with the water flux through the FO membrane. For the first time reported, this study describes a new calcium carbonate scaling phenomenon in the seawater FO desalination process using ammonium bicarbonate as the DS. The scaling on the membrane surface at the feed side is caused by the interaction between an anion reversely diffused from the DS and a cation present in the FS, causing a significant decline of the water flux. The composition of the scaling layer is dominated by the solubility (represented as solubility product constant, Ksp) of salt formed by the paired anion and cation. Membrane surface morphology plays a crucial role in the reversibility of the scaling. If the scaling occurs on the active layer of the FO membrane, hydraulic cleaning (increasing crossflow velocity) efficiency to restore the water flux is up to 82%. When scaling occurs on the support layer of the FO membrane, the hydraulic cleaning efficiency is strongly reduced, with only 36% of the water flux recovered. The present study reveals the risk of scaling induced by the interaction of feed solute and draw solute, which is different from the scaling caused by the supersaturation in reverse osmosis and other FO studies reported. The scaling investigated in this study can occur with a very low solute concentration at an early stage of the FO process. This finding provides an important implication for selection of draw solution and development of new membranes in the FO process.
dc.publisherElsevier BV
dc.rightsNOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Membrane Science. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Membrane Science, 7 February 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.memsci.2014.12.055
dc.subjectCalcium carbonate
dc.subjectForward osmosis
dc.subjectReversibility
dc.subjectScaling
dc.subjectSeawater desalination
dc.titleCalcium carbonate scaling in seawater desalination by ammonia-carbon dioxide forward osmosis: Mechanism and implications
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentEnvironmental Science and Engineering Program
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)
dc.identifier.journalJournal of Membrane Science
dc.eprint.versionPost-print
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment for Biotechnology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67Delft, Netherlands
dc.contributor.institutionWetsus, European Centre of Excellence of Sustainable Water Technology, Oostergoweg 9Leeuwarden, Netherlands
kaust.personLi, Zhenyu
kaust.personValladares Linares, Rodrigo
kaust.personBucs, Szilard
kaust.personAubry, Cyril
kaust.personGhaffour, Noreddine
kaust.personVrouwenvelder, Johannes S.
kaust.personAmy, Gary L.
refterms.dateFOA2017-02-07T00:00:00Z
dc.date.published-online2015-02-07
dc.date.published-print2015-05


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