Rapid and molecular selective electrochemical sensing of phthalates in aqueous solution
AuthorsZia, Asif I.
Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra
Al-Bahadly, Ibrahim H.
Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan
KAUST DepartmentSensing, Magnetism and Microsystems Lab
Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering (CEMSE) Division
Electrical Engineering Program
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AbstractReported research work presents real time non-invasive detection of phthalates in spiked aqueous samples by employing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique incorporating a novel interdigital capacitive sensor with multiple sensing thin film gold micro-electrodes fabricated on native silicon dioxide layer grown on semiconducting single crystal silicon wafer. The sensing surface was functionalized by a self-assembled monolayer of 3-aminopropyltrietoxysilane (APTES) with embedded molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) to introduce selectivity for the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) molecule. Various concentrations (1-100. ppm) of DEHP in deionized MilliQ water were tested using the functionalized sensing surface to capture the analyte. Frequency response analyzer (FRA) algorithm was used to obtain impedance spectra so as to determine sample conductance and capacitance for evaluation of phthalate concentration in the sample solution. Spectrum analysis algorithm interpreted the experimentally obtained impedance spectra by applying complex nonlinear least square (CNLS) curve fitting in order to obtain electrochemical equivalent circuit and corresponding circuit parameters describing the kinetics of the electrochemical cell. Principal component analysis was applied to deduce the effects of surface immobilized molecular imprinted polymer layer on the evaluated circuit parameters and its electrical response. The results obtained by the testing system were validated using commercially available high performance liquid chromatography diode array detector system.
SponsorsThe authors would like to thank Massey University, New Zealand, for providing the best possible research facilities. The authors are obliged to COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Higher Education Commission Pakistan, for providing support and funds to work on this project (Grant no. 1-1/PM(OSS)/Phase-II/Batch-II/MUNZ/2010/2039). Special thanks to all researches referenced throughout the paper whose valuable research has guided the way through to this research work, and to all whom that had fruitful discussions and collaborations with the authors.
JournalBiosensors and Bioelectronics
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