Round herring (genus Etrumeus) contain distinct evolutionary lineages coincident with a biogeographic barrier along Australia’s southern temperate coastline
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AbstractMolecular genetic surveys of marine fishes have revealed that some widely distributed species are actually a composite of multiple evolutionary lineages. This is apparent in the round herrings (genus Etrumeus), wherein a globally distributed taxon (Etrumeus sadina Mitchill 1814) has proven to contain at least seven valid taxa, with more likely awaiting discovery. Here, we survey evolutionary lineages of the nominal E. sadina (formerly E. teres, a junior synonym) across the southern temperate zone of Australia, a marine region divided into three biogeographic provinces based primarily on the distribution of intertidal faunas. Results from morphological and mitochondrial DNA data reveal two evolutionary lineages corresponding to eastern and southwestern provinces (d = 0.007 for cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and d = 0.017 for cytochrome b), possibly initiated by the Bassian Isthmus between Australia and Tasmania during low sea-level stands. The Australian round herring is also genetically distinct from the nearest congeneric forms in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, with a corresponding modal difference in gill-raker counts in most cases. Based on these data, we resurrect the title Etrumeus jacksoniensis for the Australian round herring. While the Bassian Isthmus may have initiated the partition of evolutionary lineages within Australia, additional oceanographic and ecological factors must reinforce this separation in order to maintain diagnostic genetic differences along a continuous temperate coastline. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
SponsorsThis research was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) grants OCE-0929031 to BWB, by a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) postgraduate fellowship to JDD, and by the Lerner Gray Memorial Fund of the American Museum of Natural History to JDD. For fresh specimens, genetic material, or the loan of preserved specimens we thank Alex Ivey (South Australian Research and Development Institute), Ralph Foster (South Australian Museum), Mark A. McGrouther and Amanda Hay (Australian Museum), Hiromitsu Endo (Kochi University), Shinji Uehara (Tohoku National Fisheries Research Institute), Sue Morrison (Western Australian Museum), Alastair Graham (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation), Dani Golani (Hebrew University), Simon Chater, Sean Fennessy, and Rudy van der Elst (Oceanographic Research Institute), Sahar Fahmy Mehanna (National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries), Allan Connell (South African Institute of Aquatic Biodiversity), William J. Aila (Hawai'i Department of Land and Natural Resources), John T. Snow, H. J. Walker (Scripps Institute of Oceanography), Andrew Bentley (University of Kansas Biodiversity Institute), Tim Leary (Department of Fisheries, Western Australia), Earl K. Okamoto, David J. Fujii, and Izayeh S. M. Naboa. The Clupea sample was graciously provided by Dr. Dorte Bekkevold of the Technical University of Denmark. We also thank Arnold Y. Suzumoto and Loreen R. O'Hara of the Bishop Museum for arranging transfer of preserved specimens and for x-rays; Camrin Braun for assistance with the Principal Component Analysis; Robert J. Toonen, Jo-Ann C. Leong, and members of the ToBo lab for logistic support; Amy Eggers, Rajesh Shrestha, Lauren Valentino, and Mindy Mizobe of the HIMB EPSCoR core facility (EPS-0554657) for their assistance with DNA sequencing. The manuscript was improved by two anonymous reviewers and associate editor Martin Ian Taylor. This is contribution no. 1592 from the Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology and no. 9175 from the School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology.