Monitoring microbiological changes in drinking water systems using a fast and reproducible flow cytometric method
AuthorsPrest, Emmanuelle I E C
Hammes, Frederik A.
van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.
Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.
KAUST DepartmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)
Environmental Science and Engineering Program
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/563128
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractFlow cytometry (FCM) is a rapid, cultivation-independent tool to assess and evaluate bacteriological quality and biological stability of water. Here we demonstrate that a stringent, reproducible staining protocol combined with fixed FCM operational and gating settings is essential for reliable quantification of bacteria and detection of changes in aquatic bacterial communities. Triplicate measurements of diverse water samples with this protocol typically showed relative standard deviation values and 95% confidence interval values below 2.5% on all the main FCM parameters. We propose a straightforward and instrument-independent method for the characterization of water samples based on the combination of bacterial cell concentration and fluorescence distribution. Analysis of the fluorescence distribution (or so-called fluorescence fingerprint) was accomplished firstly through a direct comparison of the raw FCM data and subsequently simplified by quantifying the percentage of large and brightly fluorescent high nucleic acid (HNA) content bacteria in each sample. Our approach enables fast differentiation of dissimilar bacterial communities (less than 15min from sampling to final result), and allows accurate detection of even small changes in aquatic environments (detection above 3% change). Demonstrative studies on (a) indigenous bacterial growth in water, (b) contamination of drinking water with wastewater, (c) household drinking water stagnation and (d) mixing of two drinking water types, univocally showed that this FCM approach enables detection and quantification of relevant bacterial water quality changes with high sensitivity. This approach has the potential to be used as a new tool for application in the drinking water field, e.g. for rapid screening of the microbial water quality and stability during water treatment and distribution in networks and premise plumbing. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
SponsorsThe authors like to thank Evides Waterbedrijf for the fruitful discussions and their financial support, and Hansueli Weilenmann for his technical support.
- Application of flow cytometry to monitor assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and microbial community changes in water.
- Authors: Elhadidy AM, Van Dyke MI, Peldszus S, Huck PM
- Issue date: 2016 Nov
- Flow cytometric bacterial cell counts challenge conventional heterotrophic plate counts for routine microbiological drinking water monitoring.
- Authors: Van Nevel S, Koetzsch S, Proctor CR, Besmer MD, Prest EI, Vrouwenvelder JS, Knezev A, Boon N, Hammes F
- Issue date: 2017 Apr 15
- Flow cytometry total cell counts: a field study assessing microbiological water quality and growth in unchlorinated drinking water distribution systems.
- Authors: Liu G, Van der Mark EJ, Verberk JQ, Van Dijk JC
- Issue date: 2013
- Rapid, cultivation-independent assessment of microbial viability in drinking water.
- Authors: Berney M, Vital M, Hülshoff I, Weilenmann HU, Egli T, Hammes F
- Issue date: 2008 Aug
- Flow-cytometric total bacterial cell counts as a descriptive microbiological parameter for drinking water treatment processes.
- Authors: Hammes F, Berney M, Wang Y, Vital M, Köster O, Egli T
- Issue date: 2008 Jan