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dc.contributor.authorJackson, Marie D.
dc.contributor.authorMoon, Juhyuk
dc.contributor.authorGotti, Emanuele
dc.contributor.authorTaylor, Rae
dc.contributor.authorChae, Sejungrosie
dc.contributor.authorKunz, Martin
dc.contributor.authorEmwas, Abdul-Hamid M.
dc.contributor.authorMeral, Cagla
dc.contributor.authorGuttmann, Peter
dc.contributor.authorLevitz, Pierre E.
dc.contributor.authorWenk, Hans Rudolf
dc.contributor.authorMonteiro, Paulo José Meleragno
dc.date.accessioned2015-08-03T11:05:10Z
dc.date.available2015-08-03T11:05:10Z
dc.date.issued2013-05-28
dc.identifier.issn00027820
dc.identifier.doi10.1111/jace.12407
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/562772
dc.description.abstractThe material characteristics and elastic properties of aluminum-substituted 11 Å tobermorite in the relict lime clasts of 2000-year-old Roman seawater harbor concrete are described with TG-DSC and 29Si MAS NMR studies, along with nanoscale tomography, X-ray microdiffraction, and high-pressure X-ray diffraction synchrotron radiation applications. The crystals have aluminum substitution for silicon in tetrahedral bridging and branching sites and 11.49(3) Å interlayer (002) spacing. With prolonged heating to 350°C, the crystals exhibit normal behavior. The experimentally measured isothermal bulk modulus at zero pressure, K0, 55 ±5 GPa, is less than ab initio and molecular dynamics models for ideal tobermorite with a double-silicate chain structure. Even so, K0, is substantially higher than calcium-aluminum-silicate-hydrate binder (C-A-S-H) in slag concrete. Based on nanoscale tomographic study, the crystal clusters form a well connected solid, despite having about 52% porosity. In the pumiceous cementitious matrix, Al-tobermorite with 11.27 Å interlayer spacing is locally associated with phillipsite, similar to geologic occurrences in basaltic tephra. The ancient concretes provide a sustainable prototype for producing Al-tobermorite in high-performance concretes with natural volcanic pozzolans. © 2013 The American Ceramic Society.
dc.description.sponsorshipThis research was supported by Award No. KUS-l1-004021, from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). Data were acquired at beamlines 12.2.2 and 12.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, supported by the Director of the Office of Science, Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, and the Advanced Nanofabrication Imaging and Characterization Laboratories at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology. We thank CTG Italcementi researchers and staff, especially B. Zanga, in Bergamo, Italy; G. Vola at Cimprogetti S.p.A., Dalmine, Italy; S. Clark at the 12.2.2 beamline; and N. Tamura at the 12.3.2 beamline; and the ROMACONS drilling program: J. P. Oleson, C. Brandon, R. Hohlfelder. T. Teague, D. Hernandez, C. Hargis, I. A. Delaney, and B. Black provided research support. We thank J. G. Moore, M. Sintubin, G. Sposito, P.-A. Itty, and J. Kirz for critical discussions, and three anonymous reviewers whose comments improved the manuscript.
dc.publisherWiley
dc.titleMaterial and elastic properties of Al-tobermorite in ancient roman seawater concrete
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentImaging and Characterization Core Lab
dc.contributor.departmentAdvanced Nanofabrication, Imaging and Characterization Core Lab
dc.identifier.journalJournal of the American Ceramic Society
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Civil Engineering Program, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, United States
dc.contributor.institutionCTG Italcementi S.p.A., Via Stezzano 87, Bergamo 24126, Italy
dc.contributor.institutionLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States
dc.contributor.institutionMiddle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara, Turkey
dc.contributor.institutionHelmholtz-Zentrum für Materialen und Energie GmbH, Institute for Soft Matter and Functional Materials, Berlin 12489, Germany
dc.contributor.institutionUniversité Pierre et Marie Curie CNRS, Laboratory PECSA, Paris F-75005, France
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States
kaust.personEmwas, Abdul-Hamid M.
kaust.grant.numberKUS-l1-004021
kaust.acknowledged.supportUnitNanofabrication Core Lab
dc.date.published-online2013-05-28
dc.date.published-print2013-08


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