Coral reef degradation and metabolic performance of the scleractinian coral Porites lutea under anthropogenic impact along the NE coast of Hainan Island, South China Sea

Abstract
Hainan's coast provides favorable climatic, geochemical and biogeographic conditions for the development of extensive coral reefs in China. Observations in five reefs along the NE coast of Hainan showed, however, that the overall density of mobile macrofauna is low and key functional groups such as browsing, scraping or excavating herbivore fish are missing altogether. Coral diseases, partial mortality or tissue degradation are abundant and growth of macroalgal space competitors extensive. Signs of eutrophication, siltation and destructive fishing practices are evident resulting in a strongly altered environment unfavorable for coral recruitment success and survival. Acclimation to the anthropogenically altered conditions in the massive coral Porites lutea occurs at the cost of a decreased photosynthesis: respiration ratio reducing the regenerative capacity of these key framebuilding organisms. Even though, on the organismal level, corals are able to cope with these stressful conditions, a shift is imminent on the ecosystem level from a coral reef to a macroalgae-dominated community if land-based disturbance prevails unabated. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Citation
Roder, C., Wu, Z., Richter, C., & Zhang, J. (2013). Coral reef degradation and metabolic performance of the scleractinian coral Porites lutea under anthropogenic impact along the NE coast of Hainan Island, South China Sea. Continental Shelf Research, 57, 123–131. doi:10.1016/j.csr.2012.11.017

Acknowledgements
Research was carried out within the frame of the bilateral Sino-German research project LANCET approved on the 13th Meeting of the Joint Steering Committee on Cooperation in Marine Science and Technology between State Oceanic Administration (China) and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Germany) in 2004, and implemented with financial supports from Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Contract No. 2007DFB20380) and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany (FKZ 03SO457A; FKZO3F0620A).The authors thank Larissa Dsikowitzky for logistic support, Julian Rau, Christoph Walcher and Dao Ru Wang for field support as well as Guo Sen Zhang for laboratory assistance. The manuscript has been improved through valuable comments from two anonymous reviewers.

Publisher
Elsevier BV

Journal
Continental Shelf Research

DOI
10.1016/j.csr.2012.11.017

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