Lanthanide-doped Na xScF 3+ x nanocrystals: Crystal structure evolution and multicolor tuning
Tok, Alfred Iing Yoong
Capobianco, John A.
KAUST DepartmentAdvanced Membranes and Porous Materials Research Center
Physical Sciences and Engineering (PSE) Division
Chemical Science Program
Nanostructured Functional Materials (NFM) laboratory
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AbstractRare-earth-based nanomaterials have recently drawn considerable attention because of their unique energy upconversion (UC) capabilities. However, studies of Sc 3+-based nanomaterials are still absent. Herein we report the synthesis and fine control of Na xScF 3+x nanocrystals by tuning of the ratio of oleic acid (OA, polar surfactant) to 1-octadecene (OD, nonpolar solvent). When the OA:OD ratio was increased from low (3:17) to high (3:7), the nanocrystals changed from pure monoclinic phase (Na 3ScF 6) to pure hexagonal phase (NaScF 4) via a transition stage at an intermediate OA:OD ratio (3:9) where a mixture of nanocrystals in monoclinic and hexagonal phases was obtained and the coexistence of the two phases inside individual nanocrystals was also observed. More significantly, because of the small radius of Sc 3+, Na xScF 3+x:Yb/Er nanocrystals show different UC emission from that of NaYF 4:Yb/Er nanocrystals, which broadens the applications of rare-earth-based nanomaterials ranging from optical communications to disease diagnosis. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
SponsorsL.H. is grateful for the financial support from the Nanyang Technological University Start-Up Grant (SUG) and the Ministry of Education Tier One Grant (RG20/09). J.A.C. holds a Concordia University Research Chair in Nanoscience and is grateful to Concordia University and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada for financial support of his research. R.N. thanks NSERC for financial support through the Alexander Graham Bell Graduate Scholarship Program.
PublisherAmerican Chemical Society (ACS)