Effect of gas sparging on flux enhancement and phytochemical properties of clarified pineapple juice by microfiltration

Abstract
Membrane fouling is a major obstacle in the application of microfiltration. Several techniques have been proposed to enhance the permeate flux during microfiltration. Gas sparging is a hydrodynamic method for improving the performance of the membrane process. In this study, a 0.2 μm hollow fiber microfiltration membrane was used to study the effect of cross flow velocity (CFV) and gas injection factor () on the critical and limiting flux during microfiltration of pineapple juice. In addition, the phytochemical properties of clarified juice were investigated. In the absence of gas sparging, the critical and limiting flux increased as the CFV or shear stress number increased. The use of gas sparging led to a remarkable improvement in both the critical and limiting flux but it was more effective at the lower CFV (1.5 m s-1), compared to those at higher CFV (2.0 and 2.5 m s-1). When the gas injection factor was applied at 0.15, 0.25 and 0.35 with a CFV of 1.5 m s -1, the enhancement of 55.6%, 75.5% and 128.2% was achieved for critical flux, while 65.8%, 69.7% and 95.2% was achieved for limiting flux, respectively. The results also indicated that the use of gas sparging was an effective method to reduce reversible fouling and external irreversible fouling rather than internal irreversible fouling. In addition, the CFV and gas sparging did not affect pH, total soluble solids, colour, total phenolic content and the antioxidant property of the clarified juice. The l-ascorbic acid and total vitamin C were significantly decreased when the higher CFV and high gas injection factor were applied. The results also indicated that the use of gas sparging with low CFV was beneficial for flux enhancement while most of the phytochemical properties of the clarified juice was preserved. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Citation
Laorko, A., Li, Z., Tongchitpakdee, S., & Youravong, W. (2011). Effect of gas sparging on flux enhancement and phytochemical properties of clarified pineapple juice by microfiltration. Separation and Purification Technology, 80(3), 445–451. doi:10.1016/j.seppur.2011.05.024

Acknowledgements
The authors gratefully acknowledge the Faculty of Agra-Industry and Graduate School, Prince of Songkla University and the National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC) of Thailand for their financial support (Project code BT-B-01-FG-18-5003).

Publisher
Elsevier BV

Journal
Separation and Purification Technology

DOI
10.1016/j.seppur.2011.05.024

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