Now showing items 21-40 of 1494

    • Why did only one genus of insects, Halobates, take to the high seas?

      Cheng, Lanna; Mishra, Himanshu (PLOS Biology, Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2022-04-13) [Article]
      Oceans cover more than 70% of the Earth’s surface and house a dizzying array of organisms. Mammals, birds, and all manner of fish can be commonly sighted at sea, but insects, the world’s most common animals, seem to be completely absent. Appearances can deceive, however, as 5 species of the ocean skater Halobates live exclusively at the ocean surface. Discovered 200 years ago, these peppercorn-sized insects remain rather mysterious. How do they cope with life at the ocean surface, and why are they the only genus of insects to have taken to the high seas?
    • Solar thermal energy conversion and utilization—New research horizon

      Wang, Peng; Zhu, Jia (EcoMat, Wiley, 2022-04-12) [Article]
    • MiDAS 4: A global catalogue of full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences and taxonomy for studies of bacterial communities in wastewater treatment plants

      Dueholm, Morten Kam Dahl; Nierychlo, Marta; Andersen, Kasper Skytte; Rudkjøbing, Vibeke; Knutsson, Simon; Arriaga, Sonia; Bakke, Rune; Boon, Nico; Bux, Faizal; Christensson, Magnus; Chua, Adeline Seak May; Curtis, Thomas P.; Cytryn, Eddie; Erijman, Leonardo; Etchebehere, Claudia; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Frigon, Dominic; Garcia-Chaves, Maria Carolina; Gu, April Z.; Horn, Harald; Jenkins, David; Kreuzinger, Norbert; Kumari, Sheena; Lanham, Ana; Law, Yingyu; Leiknes, TorOve; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Muszyński, Adam; Petrovski, Steve; Pijuan, Maite; Pillai, Suraj Babu; Reis, Maria A.M.; Rong, Qi; Rossetti, Simona; Seviour, Robert; Tooker, Nick; Vainio, Pirjo; van Loosdrecht, Mark; Vikraman, R.; Wanner, Jiří; Weissbrodt, David; Wen, Xianghua; Zhang, Tong; Nielsen, Per H.; Albertsen, Mads; Nielsen, Per Halkjær (Nature Communications, Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-04-07) [Article]
      Microbial communities are responsible for biological wastewater treatment, but our knowledge of their diversity and function is still poor. Here, we sequence more than 5 million high-quality, full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences from 740 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across the world and use the sequences to construct the ‘MiDAS 4’ database. MiDAS 4 is an amplicon sequence variant resolved, full-length 16S rRNA gene reference database with a comprehensive taxonomy from domain to species level for all sequences. We use an independent dataset (269 WWTPs) to show that MiDAS 4, compared to commonly used universal reference databases, provides a better coverage for WWTP bacteria and an improved rate of genus and species level classification. Taking advantage of MiDAS 4, we carry out an amplicon-based, global-scale microbial community profiling of activated sludge plants using two common sets of primers targeting regions of the 16S rRNA gene, revealing how environmental conditions and biogeography shape the activated sludge microbiota. We also identify core and conditionally rare or abundant taxa, encompassing 966 genera and 1530 species that represent approximately 80% and 50% of the accumulated read abundance, respectively. Finally, we show that for well-studied functional guilds, such as nitrifiers or polyphosphate-accumulating organisms, the same genera are prevalent worldwide, with only a few abundant species in each genus.
    • Innovative Solid Desiccant Dehumidification Using Distributed Microwaves

      Ybyraiymkul, Doskhan; Chen, Qian; Burhan, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Akhtar, Faheem; Kumja, M; AlRowais, Raid; Ng, Kim Choon (SSRN Preprint Server, 2022-04-06) [Preprint]
      Dehumidification is one of the key challenges facing the air conditioning (AC) industry in the treatment of moist air. Over many decades, the dual role of heat exchangers of AC chillers for the sensible and latent cooling of space has hindered the thermal-lift reduction in the refrigeration cycle, due to the requirements of water vapor removal at dew-point and heat rejection to the ambient air. These practical constraints of AC chillers have resulted in the leveling of energy efficiency of mechanical vapor compressors (MVC) for many decades. One promising approach to energy efficiency improvement is the decoupling of dehumidification from sensible processes so that innovative but separate processes can be applied. In this paper, an advanced microwave dehumidification method is investigated in the laboratory, where the microwave (2.45 GHz) energy can be irradiated onto the dipole structure of water vapor molecules, desorbing rapidly from the pores of adsorbent. Results show a significant improvement in performance for microwave dehumidification, up to 4-fold, as compared to data available in the literature.
    • Direct imaging of polymer filaments pulled from rebounding drops

      Yang, Zi Qiang; Zhang, Peng; Shi, Meng; Julaih, Ali Al; Mishra, Himanshu; Fabrizio, Enzo Di; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T (arXiv, 2022-04-04) [Preprint]
      Polymer filaments form the foundation of biology from cell scaffolding to DNA. Their study and fabrication play an important role in a wide range of processes from tissue engineering to molecular machines. We present a simple method to deposit stretched polymer fibers between micro-pillars. This occurs when a polymeric drop impacts on and rebounds from an inclined superhydrophobic substrate. It wets the top of the pillars and pulls out liquid filaments which are stretched and can attach to adjacent pillars leaving minuscule threads, with the solvent evaporating to leave the exposed polymers. We use high-speed video at the microscale to characterize the most robust filament-forming configurations, by varying the impact velocity, substrate structure and inclination angle, as well as the PEO-polymer concentration. Impacts onto plant leaves or randomized nano-structured surface leads to the formation of a branched structure, through filament mergers at the free surface of the drop. SEM shows the deposition of filament bundles which are thinner than those formed by evaporation or rolling drops. Raman spectroscopy identifies mode B stretched DNA filaments from aqueous-solution droplets.
    • Long-Term Fouling Control Strategies in Gravity-Driven Membrane Bioreactors (Gd-Mbrs): Impact on Process Performance and Membrane Fouling Properties

      Ranieri, Luigi; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Fortunato, Luca (SSRN Electronic Journal, Elsevier BV, 2022-04-01) [Preprint]
      This study aims to assess the effects of periodic physical cleanings operations in Gravity-Driven Membrane Bioreactor (GD-MBR) treating primary wastewater. The impact of each cleaning strategy on the reactor performance (permeate flux and water quality), biomass morphology, and fouling composition were evaluated. The application of air scouring coupled with intermittent filtration resulted in the highest permeate flux (4 LMH) compared to only intermittent filtration (i.e., relaxation) (1 LMH) and air scouring under continuous filtration (2.5 LMH). Air scouring coupled with relaxation led to a thin (~50 µm) but with more porous fouling layer and low hydraulic resistance, presenting the lowest concentration of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) in the biomass. Air scouring under continuous filtration led to a thin (~50 µm), dense, compact, and less porous fouling layer with the highest specific hydraulic resistance. The employment of only relaxation led to the highest fouling deposition (~280 µm) on the membrane surface. The highest TN removal (~62%) was achieved in the reactor with only relaxation (no aeration) due to the anoxic condition in the filtration tank, while the highest COD removal (~ 60%) was achieved with air scouring under continuous filtration due to the longer aeration time and the denser fouling layer. The presented results highlighted the versatility of the GD-MBR, where the choice of the appropriate operation relies on the eventual discharge or reuse of the treated effluent.
    • High-Frequency Variability of Bacterioplankton in Response to Environmental Drivers in Red Sea Coastal Waters

      Ansari, Mohd Ikram; Calleja, Maria Li; Silva, Luis; Viegas, Miguel; Ngugi, David; Huete-Stauffer, Tamara; Moran, Xose Anxelu G. (Frontiers in microbiology, Frontiers Media SA, 2022-03-31) [Article]
      Autotrophic and heterotrophic bacterioplankton are essential to the biogeochemistry of tropical ecosystems. However, the processes that govern their dynamics are not well known. We provide here a high-frequency assessment of bacterial community dynamics and concurrent environmental factors in Red Sea coastal waters. Weekly sampling of surface samples during a full annual cycle at an enclosed station revealed high variability in ecological conditions, which reflected in changes of major bacterioplankton communities. Temperature varied between 23 and 34°C during the sampling period. Autotrophic (Synechococcus, 1.7–16.2 × 104 cells mL−1) and heterotrophic bacteria (1.6–4.3 × 105 cells mL−1) showed two maxima in abundance in spring and summer, while minima were found in winter and autumn. Heterotrophic cells with high nucleic acid content (HNA) peaked in July, but their contribution to the total cell counts (35–60%) did not show a clear seasonal pattern. Actively respiring cells (CTC+) contributed between 4 and 51% of the total number of heterotrophic bacteria, while live cells (with intact membrane) consistently accounted for over 90%. Sequenced 16S rRNA amplicons revealed a predominance of Proteobacteria in summer and autumn (>40%) and a smaller contribution in winter (21–24%), with members of the Alphaproteobacteria class dominating throughout the year. The contribution of the Flavobacteriaceae family was highest in winter (21%), while the Rhodobacteraceae contribution was lowest (6%). Temperature, chlorophyll-a, and dissolved organic carbon concentration were the environmental variables with the greatest effects on bacterial abundance and diversity patterns
    • CubeSat constellations provide enhanced crop phenology and digital agricultural insights using daily leaf area index retrievals

      Johansen, Kasper; Ziliani, Matteo G.; Houborg, Rasmus; Franz, Trenton E.; McCabe, Matthew (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-03-28) [Article]
      Satellite remote sensing has great potential to deliver on the promise of a data-driven agricultural revolution, with emerging space-based platforms providing spatiotemporal insights into precision-level attributes such as crop water use, vegetation health and condition and crop response to management practices. Using a harmonized collection of high-resolution Planet CubeSat, Sentinel-2, Landsat-8 and additional coarser resolution imagery from MODIS and VIIRS, we exploit a multi-satellite data fusion and machine learning approach to deliver a radiometrically calibrated and gap-filled time-series of daily leaf area index (LAI) at an unprecedented spatial resolution of 3 m. The insights available from such high-resolution CubeSat-based LAI data are demonstrated through tracking the growth cycle of a maize crop and identifying observable within-field spatial and temporal variations across key phenological stages. Daily LAI retrievals peaked at the tasseling stage, demonstrating their value for fertilizer and irrigation scheduling. An evaluation of satellite-based retrievals against field-measured LAI data collected from both rain-fed and irrigated fields shows high correlation and captures the spatiotemporal development of intra- and inter-field variations. Novel agricultural insights related to individual vegetative and reproductive growth stages were obtained, showcasing the capacity for new high-resolution CubeSat platforms to deliver actionable intelligence for precision agricultural and related applications.
    • Influence of biofilm thickness on the removal of thirteen different organic micropollutants via a Membrane Aerated Biofilm Reactor (MABR)

      Sanchez Huerta, Claudia; Fortunato, Luca; Leiknes, TorOve; Hong, Pei-Ying (Journal of Hazardous Materials, Elsevier BV, 2022-03-26) [Article]
      The presence of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in natural water bodies has become an emerging concern due to their fast dissemination into natural water sources, high persistence, ubiquitous nature, and detrimental impact on the environment and human health. This study evaluated the Membrane Aerated Biofilm Reactor (MABR) efficiency in the removal of 13 OMPs commonly reported in water. Results demonstrated that OMPs removal is dependent on biofilm thickness and bacterial cell density, microbial community composition and physicochemical properties of OMPs. Effective removals of ammonium and organic carbon (COD, >50%), acetaminophen (70%) and triclosan (99%) were obtained even at early stages of biofilm development (thickness < 0.33 mm, 2.9 ×105 cell mL−1). An increase in biofilm thickness and cell density (1.02 mm, 2.2 ×106 cell mL−1) enhanced the system performance. MABR achieved over 90% removal of nonpolar, hydrophobic and hydrophilic OMPs and 22–69% removal of negatively charged and acidic OMPs. Relative abundances of Zoogloea, Aquabacterium, Leucobacter, Runella, and Paludilbaculum bacteria correlated with the removal of certain OMPs. In addition, MABR achieved up to 96% nitrification and 80% overall COD removal by the end of the experiment. The findings from this study demonstrated MABRs to be a feasible option to treat municipal wastewater polluted by OMPs.
    • Characterizing the Chemical Contaminants Diversity and Toxic Potential of Untreated Wastewater From a Drug Rehabilitation Hospital: Understanding Impact on Downstream Environment

      Baasher, Fras; Wang, Tian-Nyu; Zulhelmi Bin Yusnan, Muhammad; Alkahtani, Mohsen; Bashawri, Yasir M.; Al Qarni, Hamed; Hong, Pei-Ying (FRONTIERS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, Frontiers Media SA, 2022-03-24) [Article]
      This study characterizes a total of 21 wastewater samples collected from Al Amal hospital, and aims to determine if untreated hospital wastewater may impose a potentially detrimental impact on the downstream municipal biological wastewater treatment process. By means of solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), chemical contaminants in these wastewater samples were determined in a non-targeted manner. In-silico characterization for the mutagenicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing capabilities was performed by checking against database and literature. However, majority of the chemical contaminants have no prior information available and remain uncharacterized for both traits. Instead, in-vitro mutagenicity tests by means of Ames test showed that majority of the samples were non-mutagenic except for 5 samples that imposed mutagenic effect at high concentrations of >×10. In-vitro tests to determine for intracellular ROS production further showed that one of the mutagenic samples collected on Jun-22 positively induce ROS production and subsequently increased horizontal gene transfer via natural transformation. The findings in this study suggest that a specialty hospital like Al Amal does not frequently contribute mutagenic compounds and ROS to the wastewater streams, and in instances where it contributed positively, would require a high concentration to do so. Hence in general, wastewater streams from a specialty hospital like Al Amal may be unlikely to significantly perturb the downstream environment.
    • Pilot scale microbial fuel cells using air cathodes for producing electricity while treating wastewater

      Rossi, Ruggero; Hur, Andy Y.; Page, Martin A.; Thomas, Amalia O'Brien; Butkiewicz, Joseph J.; Jones, David W.; Baek, Gahyun; Saikaly, Pascal; Cropek, Donald M.; Logan, Bruce (Water Research, Elsevier BV, 2022-03-22) [Article]
      Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can generate electrical energy from the oxidation of the organic matter, but they must be demonstrated at large scales, treat real wastewaters, and show the required performance needed at a site to provide a path forward for this technology. Previous pilot-scale studies of MFC technology have relied on systems with aerated catholytes, which limited energy recovery due to the energy consumed by pumping air into the catholyte. In the present study, we developed, deployed, and tested an 850 L (1400 L total liquid volume) air-cathode MFC treating domestic-type wastewater at a centralized wastewater treatment facility. The wastewater was processed over a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12 h through a sequence of 17 brush anode modules (11 m2 total projected anode area) and 16 cathode modules, each constructed using two air-cathodes (0.6 m2 each, total cathode area of 20 m2) with the air side facing each other to allow passive air flow. The MFC effluent was further treated in a biofilter (BF) to decrease the organic matter content. The field test was conducted for over six months to fully characterize the electrochemical and wastewater treatment performance. Wastewater quality as well as electrical energy production were routinely monitored. The power produced over six months by the MFC averaged 0.46 ± 0.35 W (0.043 W m–2 normalized to the cross-sectional area of an anode) at a current of 1.54 ± 0.90 A with a coulombic efficiency of 9%. Approximately 49 ± 15 % of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was removed in the MFC alone as well as a large amount of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) (70%) and total suspended solid (TSS) (48%). In the combined MFC/BF process, up to 91 ± 6 % of the COD and 91 % of the BOD5 were removed as well as certain bacteria (E. coli, 98.9%; fecal coliforms, 99.1%). The average effluent concentration of nitrate was 1.6 ± 2.4 mg L–1, nitrite was 0.17 ± 0.24 mg L–1 and ammonia was 0.4 ± 1.0 mg L–1. The pilot scale reactor presented here is the largest air-cathode MFC ever tested, generating electrical power while treating wastewater.
    • Photothermal Nanoconfinement Reactor: Boosting Chemical Reactivity with Locally High Temperature in a Confined Space.

      Zhang, Han-Chao; Kang, Zhan-Xiao; Han, Jiang-Jin; Wang, Peng; Fan, Jin-Tu; Sheng, Guo-Ping (Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English), Wiley, 2022-03-21) [Article]
      Herein, a photothermal nanoconfinement reactor (PNCR) system is proposed and demonstrated by using hollow carbon nanospheres (HCN) to enhance the performance of chemical reaction. Under light irradiation, the local temperature of HCN inner void space was much higher than the bulk solution temperature because the confined space concentrates heat and inhibits heat loss. Using a temperature sensitive model reaction, peroxydisulfate (PDS) activation to oxidize micropollutant, it is shown that the degradation rate of sulfamethoxazole in the PNCR system was 7.1 times of those without nanoconfinement. It is further discovered that the high-quality local heat inside the nanoconfined space shifted the model reaction from an otherwise non-radical pathway to a radical-based pathway in the presence of the confinement. This work provides an interesting strategy to produce locally high temperature which has a wide range of applications to energy and environmental fields.
    • Permeation Increases Biofilm Development in Nanofiltration Membranes Operated with Varying Feed Water Phosphorous Concentrations

      Javier, Luisa; Pulido Beltran, Laura; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Farhat, Nadia (Membranes, MDPI AG, 2022-03-18) [Article]
      Nutrient limitation has been proposed as a biofouling control strategy for membrane systems. However, the impact of permeation on biofilm development under phosphorus-limited and enriched conditions is poorly understood. This study analyzed biofilm development in membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) with and without permeation supplied with water varying dosed phosphorus concentrations (0 and 25 μg P·L−1). The MFSs operated under permeation conditions were run at a constant flux of 15.6 L·m2·h−1 for 4.7 days. Feed channel pressure drop, transmembrane pressure, and flux were used as performance indicators. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and biomass quantification were used to analyze the developed biofilms. The total phosphorus concentration that accumulated on the membrane and spacer was quantified by using microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Results show that permeation impacts biofilm development depending on nutrient condition with a stronger impact at low P concentration (pressure drop increase: 282%; flux decline: 11%) compared to a higher P condition (pressure drop increase: 206%; flux decline: 2%). The biofilm that developed at 0 μg P·L−1 under permeation conditions resulted in a higher performance decline due to biofilm localization and spread in the MFS. A thicker biofilm developed on the membrane for biofilms grown at 0 μg P·L−1 under permeation conditions, causing a stronger effect on flux decline (11%) compared to non-permeation conditions (5%). The difference in the biofilm thickness on the membrane was attributed to a higher phosphorus concentration in the membrane biofilm under permeation conditions. Permeation has an impact on biofilm development and, therefore, should not be excluded in biofouling studies.
    • Pressurized Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent Extraction of Galanthamine and related alkaloids from Narcissus pseudonarcissus

      Rachmaniah, Orchidea; Wilson, Erica; Choi, Young Hae; Witkamp, Geert Jan; Verpoorte, Robert (Planta Medica, Georg Thieme Verlag KG, 2022-03-18) [Article]
      The isolation of a compound from a natural source involves many organic and mostly toxic solvents for extraction and purification. Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES) have been shown to be efficient options for the extraction of natural products. They have the advantage of being composed of abundantly available common primary metabolites, being non-toxic and environmentally safe solvents. The aim of this study was to develop a NADES-based extraction method for galanthamine, an important therapeutic agent for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. This alkaloid can be produced by synthesis or by extraction from Narcissus bulbs. To develop an efficient extraction method a number of different NADES was first tested for their solubilization capacity of the galanthamine bromide salt. Promising results were obtained for ionic liquids, as well as some amphoteric and acidic NADES. In a two-cycle extraction process the best solvents were tested for the extraction of galanthamine from bulbs. The ionic liquids produced poor yields, and the best results were obtained with some acid and sugar mixtures, among which malic acid – sucrose – water (1:1:5) proved to be the best, showing similar yields to that of the exhaustive Soxhlet extraction with methanol. Furthermore, the NADES was more selective for galanthamine.
    • An integrated solar-driven system produces electricity with fresh water and crops in arid regions

      Li, Renyuan; Wu, Mengchun; Aleid, Sara; Zhang, Chenlin; Wang, Wenbin; Wang, Peng (Cell Reports Physical Science, Elsevier BV, 2022-03-16) [Article]
      Stable supplies of water, energy, and food are the most essential factors to universal achievements of the United Nation’s Sustainable Developments Goals (SDGs) by 2030. This work reports a self-sustained and solar-driven, integrated water-electricity-crop co-production system (WEC2P). The design of WEC2P is based on the atmospheric water adsorption-desorption cycle (1) to generate cooling power for photovoltaic (PV) cells to increase their electricity generation performance or (2) to sustainably produce fresh water from atmospheric water vapor to support crop growth. During the 3-month-long outdoor field test, the WEC2P successfully reduced the temperature of PV panels by up to 17°C and increased their electricity generation by up to 9.9% in the PV cooling mode. Meanwhile, it produced water to irrigate crops (i.e., water spinach) hosted in an integrated plant-growing unit in Saudi Arabia, with a crop surviving rate of 95%. Thereby, WEC2P may represent a meaningful contribution to the global water-energy-food nexus
    • Machine Learning Strategies for the Retrieval of Leaf-Chlorophyll Dynamics: Model Choice, Sequential Versus Retraining Learning, and Hyperspectral Predictors

      Angel, Yoseline; McCabe, Matthew (Frontiers in Plant Science, Frontiers Media SA, 2022-03-11) [Article]
      Monitoring leaf Chlorophyll (Chl) in-situ is labor-intensive, limiting representative sampling for detailed mapping of Chl variability at field scales across time. Unmanned aeria-l vehicles (UAV) and hyperspectral cameras provide flexible platforms for observing agricultural systems, overcoming this spatio-temporal sampling constraint. Here, we evaluate a customized machine learning (ML) workflow to retrieve multi-temporal leaf-Chl levels, combining sub-centimeter resolution UAV-hyperspectral imagery (400–1,000 nm) with leaf-level reflectance spectra and SPAD measurements, capturing temporal correlations, selecting relevant predictors, and retrieving accurate results under different conditions. The study is performed within a phenotyping experiment to monitor wild tomato plants’ development. Several analyses were conducted to evaluate multiple ML strategies, including: (1) exploring sequential versus retraining learning; (2) comparing insights gained from using 272 spectral bands versus 60 pigment-based vegetation indices (VIs); and (3) assessing six regression methods (linear, partial-least-square regression; PLSR, decision trees, support vector, ensemble trees, and Gaussian process; GPR). Goodness-of-fit (R2) and accuracy metrics (MAE, RMSE) were determined using training/testing and validation data subsets to assess the models’ performance. Overall, while equally good performance was obtained using either PLSR, GPR, or random forest, results show: (1) the retraining strategy improved the ability of most of the approaches to model SPAD-based Chl dynamics; (2) comparative analysis between retrievals and validation data distributions informed the models’ ability to capture Chl dynamics through SPAD levels; (3) VI predictors slightly improved R2 (e.g., from 0.59 to 0.74 units for GPR) and accuracy (e.g., MAE and RMSE differences of up to 2 SPAD units) in specific algorithms; (4) feature importance examined through these methods, revealed strong overlaps between relevant bands and VI predictors, highlighting a few decisive spectral ranges and indices useful for retrieving leaf-Chl levels. The proposed ML framework allows the retrieval of high-quality spatially distributed and multi-temporal SPAD-based chlorophyll maps at an ultra-high pixel resolution (e.g., 7 mm).
    • Multi-variable assimilation into a modified AquaCrop model for improved maize simulation without management or crop phenology information

      Lu, Yang; Wei, Chunzhu; McCabe, Matthew; Sheffield, Justin (Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier BV, 2022-03-09) [Article]
      Accurate crop modeling at the field-level is important for yield prediction and agricultural risk mitigation, but is often hindered by the lack of information on field management as well as crop phenology of different cultivars. This study aims to develop a data assimilation framework for field-level crop modeling without management or crop phenology information for potential remote sensing applications. To do this, we first present a Monte Carlo simulation-based approach to estimating planting date and quasi-calibrated phenological parameters. Second, a simplified fertility stress scheme is developed for the AquaCrop model. The aim here is not necessarily to improve the AquaCrop model but to facilitate ensemble simulation when the field-level fertility stress condition is unknown. Finally, in situ soil moisture, canopy cover and biomass measurements are assimilated into the model to estimate crop yield, with the potential for yield prediction also explored. The experiments were performed for a rainfed maize field over 9 growing seasons, with each using a different maize cultivar. Results suggest that the planting dates can be accurately estimated (RMSE = 7.1 days, MAE = 5.4 days), and that the simplified fertility stress scheme adequately approximates the biomass and yield estimates from the original AquaCrop model under different fertility stress conditions. Data assimilation improves yield estimation, with an RMSE of 0.97 Mg/ha compared to 2.14 Mg/ha from the no-assimilation case. Yield prediction experiments reveal that the method is able to predict yield within 15% of the observed values up to 3 months before harvest. The proposed methodology does not rely on field-based information (e.g., planting date, plant density, crop phenology, fertility condition), and illustrates the potential for field-level crop modeling and yield forecasting using remote sensing data.
    • Unusual Activity of Rationally Designed Cobalt Phosphide/Oxide Heterostructure Composite for Hydrogen Production in Alkaline Medium

      ALSABBAN, Merfat; Eswaran, Mathan Kumar; Peramaiah, Karthik; Wahyudi, Wandi; Yang, Xiulin; Ramalingam, Vinoth; Hedhili, Mohamed. N.; Miao, Xiaohe; Schwingenschlögl, Udo; Li, Lain-Jong; Tung, Vincent; Huang, Kuo-Wei (ACS Nano, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2022-03-07) [Article]
      Design and development of an efficient, nonprecious catalyst with structural features and functionality necessary for driving the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in an alkaline medium remain a formidable challenge. At the root of the functional limitation is the inability to tune the active catalytic sites while overcoming the poor reaction kinetics observed under basic conditions. Herein, we report a facile approach to enable the selective design of an electrochemically efficient cobalt phosphide oxide composite catalyst on carbon cloth (CoP-CoxOy/CC), with good activity and durability toward HER in alkaline medium (η10= -43 mV). Theoretical studies revealed that the redistribution of electrons at laterally dispersed Co phosphide/oxide interfaces gives rise to a synergistic effect in the heterostructured composite, by which various Co oxide phases initiate the dissociation of the alkaline water molecule. Meanwhile, the highly active CoP further facilitates the adsorption-desorption process of water electrolysis, leading to extremely high HER activity.
    • Hierarchical Nanocapsules of Cu-Doped MoS 2@H-Substituted Graphdiyne for Magnesium Storage

      Zhuo, Sifei; Huang, Gang; Sougrat, Rachid; Guo, Jing; Wei, Nini; Shi, Le; Li, Renyuan; Liang, Hanfeng; Shi, Yusuf; Zhang, Qiuyu; Wang, Peng; Alshareef, Husam N. (ACS Nano, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2022-03-07) [Article]
      Hierarchical nanocomposites, which integrate electroactive materials into carbonaceous species, are significant in addressing the structural stability and electrical conductivity of electrode materials in post-lithium-ion batteries. Herein, a hierarchical nanocapsule that encapsulates Cu-doped MoS2(Cu-MoS2) nanopetals with inner added skeletons in an organic-carbon-rich nanotube of hydrogen-substituted graphdiyne (HsGDY) has been developed for rechargeable magnesium batteries (RMB). Notably, both the incorporation of Cu in MoS2and the generation of the inner added nanoboxes are developed from a dual-template of Cu-cysteine@HsGDY hybrid nanowire; the synthesis involves two morphology/composition evolutions by CuS@HsGDY intermediates both taking place sequentially in one continuous process. These Cu-doped MoS2nanopetals with stress-release skeletons provide abundant active sites for Mg2+storage. The microporous HsGDY enveloped with an extended π-conjugation system offers more effective electron and ion transfer channels. These advantages work together to make this nanocapsule an effective cathode material for RMB with a large reversible capacity and superior rate and cycling performance.
    • msdueholm/MiDAS4:

      Dueholm, Morten Kam Dahl; Nierychlo, Marta; Andersen, Kasper Skytte; Rudkjøbing, Vibeke; Knutsson, Simon; Arriaga, Sonia; Bakke, Rune; Boon, Nico; Bux, Faizal; Christensson, Magnus; Chua, Adeline Seak May; Curtis, Thomas P.; Cytryn, Eddie; Erijman, Leonardo; Etchebehere, Claudia; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Frigon, Dominic; Garcia-Chaves, Maria Carolina; Gu, April Z.; Horn, Harald; Jenkins, David; Kreuzinger, Norbert; Kumari, Sheena; Lanham, Ana; Law, Yingyu; Leiknes, TorOve; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Muszyński, Adam; Petrovski, Steve; Pijuan, Maite; Pillai, Suraj Babu; Reis, Maria A.M.; Rong, Qi; Rossetti, Simona; Seviour, Robert; Tooker, Nick; Vainio, Pirjo; van Loosdrecht, Mark; Vikraman, R.; Wanner, Jiří; Weissbrodt, David; Wen, Xianghua; Zhang, Tong; Nielsen, Per H.; Albertsen, Mads; Nielsen, Per Halkjær (Github, 2022-03-03) [Software]