Shaikh, Sohail F.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Bahabry, Rabab R.; Khan, Sherjeel; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa(Advanced Materials Technologies, Wiley, 2017-10-24)[Article]
Electronic system components have thousands of individual field effect transistors (FETs) interconnected executing dedicated functions. Assembly yield of >80% will guarantee system failure since a single interconnect failure will result in undesired performance. Hence, a paradigm shift is needed in the self-assembly or integration of state-of-the-art integrated circuits (ICs) for a physically compliant system. Traditionally, most ICs share same geometry with only variations in dimensions and packaging. Here, a generic manufacturable method of converting state-of-the-art complementary metal oxide semiconductor-based ICs into modular Lego-electronics is shown with unique geometry that is physically identifiable to ease manufacturing and enhance throughput. Various geometries at the backside of the silicon die and on the destination site having the same geometry with relaxed dimension (up to 50 µm extra) allow targeted site binding like DNA assembly. Different geometries, angles, and heights for different modules provide a unique identity to each of the ICs. A two-level geometric combination presented here helps in maintaining the uniqueness of individual module to assemble at exact matching site like a perfect lock-and-key model. The assembled ICs offer uncompromised electrical performance, higher yield, and fabrication ease. In future, this method can further be expanded for fluidic assisted self-assembly.
Park, Woojin; Min, Jung-Wook; Shaikh, Sohail F.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa(physica status solidi (a), Wiley, 2017-09-07)[Article]
Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) is an emerging 2-dimensional (2D) semiconductor for electronic devices. However, unstable and low performance of MoS2 FETs is an important concern. In this study, inserting an atomic layer deposition (ALD) titanium dioxide (TiO2) interfacial layer between contact metal and MoS2 channel is suggested to achieve more stable performances. The reduced threshold voltage (VTH) shift and reduced series resistance (RSD) were simultaneously achieved.
Nassar, Joanna M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa(IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017-01-23)[Article]
We report on investigation of the mechanical properties of paper electronics (printed and made out of paper). One key objective of such paper electronics is to achieve ultraflexibility. Therefore, it is important to understand electrical functionality and reliability of paper electronics under various physical (mechanical) deformations. Here, we show the general mechanical properties of the cellulose paper used and its electrical behavior under applied strain, tackling the main effects that need to be identified when building paper-based systems, from product performance and stability perspective. An overview of the stress-strain behavior of silver ink on paper is discussed, and then, we tackle a more specific analysis of the performance variations of paper sensors made with recyclable household materials when exposed to various mechanical conditions of tensile and compressive bending. This paper is important for developing stable wearable sensors for incorporation into Internet of Everything applications.
Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa(Small, Wiley, 2017-02-01)[Article]
A highly manufacturable deep reactive ion etching based process involving a hybrid soft/hard mask process technology shows high aspect ratio complex geometry Lego-like silicon electronics formation enabling free-form (physically flexible, stretchable, and reconfigurable) electronic systems.
Shaikh, Sohail F.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Sevilla, Galo T.; Nassar, Joanna M.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa(IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017-01-17)[Article]
The state-of-the-art electronics technology has been an integral part of modern advances. The prevalent rise of the mobile device and computational technology in the age of information technology offers exciting applications that are attributed to sophisticated, enormously reliable, and most mature CMOS-based electronics. We are accustomed to high performance, cost-effective, multifunctional, and energy-efficient scaled electronics. However, they are rigid, bulky, and brittle. The convolution of flexibility and stretchability in electronics for emerging Internet of Everything application can unleash smart application horizon in unexplored areas, such as robotics, healthcare, smart cities, transport, and entertainment systems. While flexible and stretchable device themes are being remarkably chased, the realization of the fully compliant electronic system is unaddressed. Integration of data processing, storage, communication, and energy management devices complements a compliant system. Here, a comprehensive review is presented on necessity and design criteria for freeform (physically flexible and stretchable) compliant high-performance CMOS electronic systems.
Rojas, Jhonathan P.; Singh, Devendra; Inayat, Salman B.; Sevilla, Galo T.; Fahad, Hossain M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa(ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, The Electrochemical Society, 2017-01-12)[Article]
As we are advancing our world to smart living, a critical challenge is increasingly pressing - increased energy demand. While we need mega power supplies for running data centers and other emerging applications, we also need instant small- scale power supply for trillions of electronics that we are using and will use in the age of Internet of Things (IoT) and Internet of Everything (IoE). Such power supplies must meet some parallel demands: sufficient energy supply in reliable, safe and affordable manner. In that regard, thermoelectric generators emerge as important renewable energy source with great potential to take advantage of the widely-abundant and normally-wasted thermal energy. Thanks to the advancements of nano-engineered materials, thermoelectric generators' (TEG) performance and feasibility are gradually improving. However, still innovative engineering solutions are scarce to sufficiently take the TEG performance and functionalities beyond the status-quo. Opportunities exist to integrate them with emerging fields and technologies such as wearable electronics, bio-integrated systems, cybernetics and others. This review will mainly focus on unorthodox but effective engineering solutions to notch up the overall performance of TEGs and broadening their application base. First, nanotechnology's influence in TEGs' development will be introduced, followed by a discussion on how the introduction of mechanically reconfigurable devices can shape up the emerging spectrum of novel TEG technologies. (C) The Author(s) 2017. Published by ECS.
Cavazos Sepulveda, Adrian; Diaz Cordero, M. S.; Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Nassar, Joanna M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa(Applied Physics Letters, AIP Publishing, 2017-03-30)[Article]
Flexible and stretchable semiconducting substrates provide the foundation for novel electronic applications. Usually, ultra-thin, flexible but often fragile substrates are used in such applications. Here, we describe flexible, stretchable, and foldable 500-μm-thick bulk mono-crystalline silicon (100) “islands” that are interconnected via extremely compliant 30-μm-thick connectors made of silicon. The thick mono-crystalline segments create a stand-alone silicon array that is capable of bending to a radius of 130 μm. The bending radius of the array does not depend on the overall substrate thickness because the ultra-flexible silicon connectors are patterned. We use fracture propagation to release the islands. Because they allow for three-dimensional monolithic stacking of integrated circuits or other electronics without any through-silicon vias, our mono-crystalline islands can be used as a “more-than-Moore” strategy and to develop wearable electronics that are sufficiently robust to be compatible with flip-chip bonding.
In the recent past, with the advent of transient electronics for mostly implantable and secured electronic applications, the whole field effect transistor structure has been dissolved in a variety of chemicals. Here, we show simple water soluble nano-scale (sub-10 nm) germanium oxide (GeO) as the dissolvable component to remove the functional structures of metal oxide semiconductor devices and then reuse the expensive germanium substrate again for functional device fabrication. This way, in addition to transiency, we also show an environmentally friendly manufacturing process for a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Every year, trillions of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics are manufactured and billions are disposed, which extend the harmful impact to our environment. Therefore, this is a key study to show a pragmatic approach for water soluble high performance electronics for environmentally friendly manufacturing and bioresorbable electronic applications.
In today's digital age, the increasing dependence on information also makes us vulnerable to potential invasion of privacy and cyber security. Consider a scenario in which a hard drive is stolen, lost, or misplaced, which contains secured and valuable information. In such a case, it is important to have the ability to remotely destroy the sensitive part of the device (e.g., memory or processor) if it is not possible to regain it. Many emerging materials and even some traditional materials like silicon, aluminum, zinc oxide, tungsten, and magnesium, which are often used for logic processor and memory, show promise to be gradually dissolved upon exposure of various liquid medium. However, often these wet processes are too slow, fully destructive, and require assistance from the liquid materials and their suitable availability at the time of need. This study shows Joule heating effect induced thermal expansion and stress gradient between thermally expandable advanced polymeric material and flexible bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) to destroy high-performance solid state electronics as needed and under 10 s. This study also shows different stimuli-assisted smartphone-operated remote destructions of such complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics.
Kutbee, Arwa T.; Bahabry, Rabab R.; Alamoudi, Kholod; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Diaz, Marlon; Almislem, Amani Saleh Saad; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Diallo, Elhadj; Nassar, Joanna M.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Khashab, Niveen M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa(npj Flexible Electronics, Springer Nature, 2017-10-25)[Article]
To augment the quality of our life, fully compliant personalized advanced health-care electronic system is pivotal. One of the major requirements to implement such systems is a physically flexible high-performance biocompatible energy storage (battery). However, the status-quo options do not match all of these attributes simultaneously and we also lack in an effective integration strategy to integrate them in complex architecture such as orthodontic domain in human body. Here we show, a physically complaint lithium-ion micro-battery (236 μg) with an unprecedented volumetric energy (the ratio of energy to device geometrical size) of 200 mWh/cm3 after 120 cycles of continuous operation. Our results of 90% viability test confirmed the battery’s biocompatibility. We also show seamless integration of the developed battery in an optoelectronic system embedded in a three-dimensional printed smart dental brace. We foresee the resultant orthodontic system as a personalized advanced health-care application, which could serve in faster bone regeneration and enhanced enamel health-care protection and subsequently reducing the overall health-care cost.
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different
formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format.
By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items.
For anonymous users the allowed maximum amount is 50 search results.
To select a subset of the search results, click "Selective Export" button and make a selection of the items you want to export.
The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export.
After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format.