Liao, Hanguang; Zhang, Qingle; Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Kuo, Yen Hung; Mishra, Nidhi; Shamim, Atif(IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019-08-26)[Article]
A low-cost and additively manufactured 3D Antenna-in-Package (AiP) with quasi-isotropic radiation is proposed for a marine animals monitoring system. The antenna is based on a meandered dipole folded as a split ring resonator (SRR) structure, which can generate simultaneously a pair of orthogonal electric and magnetic dipoles, thus providing a quasi-isotropic radiation pattern. The antenna (integrated with a balun) has been inkjet-printed on a 3D-printed buoyant cone structure, which acts also as the system package to house the electronics and the battery. The antenna designed at 2.4 GHz is electrically small, with a ka = 0.49, and has a bandwidth of 70 MHz (2.9%). The measured gain deviation of the antenna (maximum to minimum) is near 3 dB in bandwidth, thus qualifying it as a quasi-isotropic antenna. Field tests of the antenna in the active state (integrated with the electronics) confirm a reliable communication range of 240 m in any direction in the azimuthal plane.
According to the World Health Organization, one quarter of the world's population suffers from various neurological disorders ranging from depression to Alzheimer's disease. Thus, understanding the operation mechanism of the brain enables us to help those who are suffering from these diseases. In addition, recent clinical medicine employs electronic brain implants, despite the fact of being invasive, to treat disorders ranging from severe coronary conditions to traumatic injuries. As a result, the deaf could hear, the blind could see, and the paralyzed could control robotic arms and legs. Due to the requirement of high data management capability with a power consumption as low as possible, designing nanoscale transistors as essential I/O electronics is a complex task. Herein, we review the essential design criteria for such nanoscale transistors, progress and prospect for implantable brain–machine-interface electronics. This article also discusses their technological challenges for practical implementation.
Elatab, Nazek; Shaikh, Sohail F.; Khan, Sherjeel; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa(Advanced Engineering Materials, Wiley, 2019-04-10)[Article]
The primary focus of modern electronics technology is to increase its functionalities within a smaller footprint at an affordable cost. This creates a new set of design challenges for the already-existing complex integration and packaging schemes. Here, CMOS-compatible and heterogeneous multi-dimensional integrated circuits (MD-IC) as smart electronic systems for Internet of Things (IoT) applications are shown. Both sides of bulk monocrystalline Si (100) substrate for device fabrication which are connected via through-silicon-via to transform it into bi-facial CMOS electronics system are used. As a proof-of-concept, cubic, pyramidal, and buckyball shaped MD-ICs, with broad variety of devices including humidity, temperature, pressure, and pH sensors, solar cells, antenna, microcontroller, light emitting diode and micro lithium-ion battery are shown. In these MD-ICs, adjacent sides are interconnected through side-interlocks. It is also shown that polymeric encapsulation and heterogeneous materials (Si, Ge, and GaSb) can be integrated in the MD-IC architecture to meet the rigorous requirements of IoT devices. Compared to folded rigid or flexible Printed Circuit Board based electronics, this report shows unprecedented usage of area by device fabrication on both sides which are also connected through-silicon-via as state-of-the-art tool for 3D-IC manufacturing.
Shaikh, Sohail F.; Mazo-Mantilla, Harold F.; Qaiser, Nadeem; Khan, Sherjeel; Nassar, Joanna M.; Geraldi, Nathan; Duarte, Carlos M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa(Small, Wiley, 2019-02-01)[Article]
Advances in marine research to understand environmental change and its effect on marine ecosystems rely on gathering data on species physiology, their habitat, and their mobility patterns using heavy and invasive biologgers and sensory telemetric networks. In the past, a lightweight (6 g) compliant environmental monitoring system: Marine Skin was demonstrated. In this paper, an enhanced version of that skin with improved functionalities (500–1500% enhanced sensitivity), packaging, and most importantly its endurance at a depth of 2 km in the highly saline Red Sea water for four consecutive weeks is reported. A unique noninvasive approach for attachment of the sensor by designing a wearable, stretchable jacket (bracelet) that can adhere to any species irrespective of their skin type is also illustrated. The wearable featherlight (<0.5 g in air, 3 g with jacket) gadget is deployed on Barramundi, Seabream, and common goldfish to demonstrate the noninvasive and effective attachment strategy on different species of variable sizes which does not hinder the animals' natural movement or behavior.
Nassar, Joanna M.; Khan, Sherjeel; Villalva, Diego Rosas; Nour, Maha M.; Almislem, Amani Saleh Saad; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa(npj Flexible Electronics, Springer Nature, 2018-08-16)[Article]
The microclimate surrounding a plant has major effect on its health and photosynthesis process, where certain plants struggle in suboptimal environmental conditions and unbalanced levels of humidity and temperature. The ability to remotely track and correlate the effect of local environmental conditions on the healthy growth of plants can have great impact for increasing survival rate of plants and augmenting agriculture output. This necessitates the widespread distribution of lightweight sensory devices on the surface of each plant. Using flexible and biocompatible materials coupled with a smart compact design for a low power and lightweight system, we develop widely deployed, autonomous, and compliant wearables for plants. The demonstrated wearables integrate temperature, humidity and strain sensors, and can be intimately deployed on the soft surface of any plant to remotely and continuously evaluate optimal growth settings. This is enabled through simultaneous detection of environmental conditions while quantitatively tracking the growth rate (viz. elongation). Finally, we establish a nature-inspired origami-assembled 3D-printed “PlantCopter”, used as a launching platform for our plant wearable to enable widespread microclimate monitoring in large fields.
Park, Woojin; Hanna, Amir; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa(IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018-06-05)[Article]
A new architecture of tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) with in-line (vertical) tunneling area is introduced. By adding the vertical tunneling area, the in-line TFET architecture outperformed the normal TFET in terms of the drive current, the subthreshold swing (SS), and the intrinsic time delay, etc. The drive current of the in-line TFET is enhanced nearly 7× compared to the conventional TFET. It also shows a significantly reduced subthreshold swing of 37.2 mV/dec.
Park, Woojin; Shaikh, Sohail F.; Min, Jungwook; Lee, Sang Kyung; Lee, Byoung Hun; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa(Nanotechnology, IOP Publishing, 2018-05-15)[Article]
We report a saw-shaped electrode architecture ZnO thin film transistor (TFT) for effectively increase channel width. Such a saw-shaped electrode has ~2 times longer contact line at the contact metal/ZnO channel junction. We experimentally observed an enhancement in the output drive current by 50% and reduction in the contact resistance by over 50%, when compared to a typical shaped electrode ZnO TFT consuming the same chip area. This performance enhancement is attributed to extension of channel width. This technique can contribute to device performance enhancement and especially reduction in the contact resistance which is a serious challenge.
Nassar, Joanna M.; Khan, Sherjeel; Velling, Seneca J.; Diaz-Gaxiola, Andrea; Shaikh, Sohail F.; Geraldi, Nathan; Sevilla, Galo T.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa(npj Flexible Electronics, Springer Nature, 2018-04-16)[Article]
Current marine research primarily depends on weighty and invasive sensory equipment and telemetric network to understand the marine environment, including the diverse fauna it contains, as a function of animal behavior and size, as well as equipment longevity. To match animal morphology and activity within the surrounding marine environment, here we show a physically flexible and stretchable skin-like and waterproof autonomous multifunctional system, integrating Bluetooth, memory chip, and high performance physical sensors. The sensory tag is mounted on a swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus) and is capable of continuous logging of depth, temperature, and salinity within the harsh ocean environment. The fully packaged, ultra-lightweight (<2.4 g in water), and compliant “Marine Skin” system does not have any wired connection enabling safe and weightless cutting-edge approach to monitor and assess marine life and the ecosystem’s health to support conservation and management of marine ecosystems.
Khan, Sherjeel; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Nassar, Joanna M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa(Advanced Materials, Wiley, 2018-02-27)[Article]
With the increased global population, it is more important than ever to expand accessibility to affordable personalized healthcare. In this context, a seamless integration of microfluidic technology for bioanalysis and drug delivery and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology enabled data-management circuitry is critical. Therefore, here, the fundamentals, integration aspects, and applications of CMOS-enabled microfluidic systems for affordable personalized healthcare systems are presented. Critical components, like sensors, actuators, and their fabrication and packaging, are discussed and reviewed in detail. With the emergence of the Internet-of-Things and the upcoming Internet-of-Everything for a people-process-data-device connected world, now is the time to take CMOS-enabled microfluidics technology to as many people as possible. There is enormous potential for microfluidic technologies in affordable healthcare for everyone, and CMOS technology will play a major role in making that happen.
A novel wavy-shaped thin-film-transistor (TFT) architecture, capable of achieving 70% higher drive current per unit chip area when compared with planar conventional TFT architectures, is reported for flexible display application. The transistor, due to its atypical architecture, does not alter the turn-on voltage or the OFF current values, leading to higher performance without compromising static power consumption. The concept behind this architecture is expanding the transistor's width vertically through grooved trenches in a structural layer deposited on a flexible substrate. Operation of zinc oxide (ZnO)-based TFTs is shown down to a bending radius of 5 mm with no degradation in the electrical performance or cracks in the gate stack. Finally, flexible low-power LEDs driven by the respective currents of the novel wavy, and conventional coplanar architectures are demonstrated, where the novel architecture is able to drive the LED at 2 × the output power, 3 versus 1.5 mW, which demonstrates the potential use for ultrahigh resolution displays in an area efficient manner.
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