Al-Jarrah, Mohammad; Park, Kihong; Al-Dweik, Arafat; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim(IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019-09-27)[Article]
Amplitude-coherent (AC) detection is an efficient technique that can simplify the receiver design while providing reliable symbol error rate (SER). Therefore, this work considers AC detector design and SER analysis using M-ary amplitude shift keying (MASK) modulation with receiver diversity over Rician fading channels. More specifically, we derive the optimum, near-optimum and a suboptimum AC detectors and compare their SER with the coherent, phase-coherent, noncoherent and the heuristic AC detectors. Moreover, the analytical and asymptotic SER at high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are derived for the heuristic detector using single and multiple receiving antennas. The obtained analytical and simulation results show that the SER of the AC and coherent MASK detectors are comparable, particularly for high values of the Rician K-factor, and small number of receiving antennas. In most of the considered scenarios, the heuristic AC detector outperforms the optimum noncoherent detector significantly, except for the binary ASK case at low SNRs. Moreover, the obtained results show that the heuristic AC detector is immune to phase noise, and thus, it outperforms the coherent detector in scenarios where the system is subject to considerable phase noise.
Nam, Sung Sik; Ko, Young-Chai; Hwang, Duckdong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim(IEEE Access, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019-09-19)[Article]
In this paper, we introduce a systematic and unified stochastic tool to determine the joint statistics of partial products of ordered random variables (RVs). With the proposed approach, we can systematically obtain the desired joint statistics of any partial products of ordered statistics in terms of the Mellin transform and the probability density function in a unified way. Our approach can be applied when all the K-ordered RVs are involved, even for more complicated cases, for example, when only the Ks (Ks<K) best RVs are also considered. As an example of their application, these results can be applied to the performance analysis of various wireless communication systems including wireless optical communication systems. For an applied example, we present the closed-form expressions for the exponential RV special case. We would like to emphasize that with the derived results based on our proposed stochastic tool, computational complexity and execution time can be reduced compared to the computational complexity and execution time based on an original multiple-fold integral expression of the conventional Mellin transform based approach which has been applied in cases of the product of RVs.
Mao, Yuan; Ashry, Islam; Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Ng, Tien Khee; Hveding, Frode; Arsalan, Muhammad; Ooi, Boon S.(IEEE Photonics Journal, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019-09-17)[Article]
We experimentally investigated the performance of a distributed acoustic sensor (DAS) designed using a few-mode fiber (FMF), when launching different spatial modes under intentional index perturbation within the fiber. Our demonstration showed that the quasi-single mode (QSM) operated FMF offers higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the DAS, compared with the case when launching other degenerate higher order modes. Additionally, we compared the behavior of the single-mode fiber (SMF)- and FMF-based DAS when using optical pulses of varying power levels. The FMF enables the realization of a DAS with longer sensing range and higher spatial resolution. The developed FMF-based DAS is further tested via sensing various vibration events produced by piezoelectric transducer (PZT) cylinder, pencil break, and loudspeaker.
Elgenedy, Mohamed A.; Massoud, Ahmed M.; Ahmed, Shehab; Williams, Barry W.; McDonald, Jim R.(IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019-02-19)[Article]
In order to overcome the limitations of the existing classical and solid-state Marx pulse generators, this paper proposes a new modular multilevel voltage-boosting Marx pulse generator (BMPG). The proposed BMPG has hardware features that allow modularity, redundancy, and scalability as well as operational features that alleviate the need of series-connected switches and allows generation of a wide range of pulse waveforms. In the BMPG, a controllable, low-voltage input boost converter supplies, via directing/blocking (D/B) diodes, two arms of a series modular multilevel converter half-bridge sub-modules (HB-SMs). At start up, all the arm's SM capacitors are resonantly charged in parallel from 0 V, simultaneously via directing diodes, to a voltage in excess of the source voltage. After the first pulse delivery, the energy of the SM capacitors decreases due to the generated pulse. Then, for continuous operation without fully discharging the SM capacitors or having a large voltage droop as in the available Marx generators, the SM capacitors are continuously recharged in parallel, to the desired boosted voltage level. Because all SMs are parallelly connected, the boost converter duty ratio is controlled by a single voltage measurement at the output terminals of the boost converter. Due to the proposed SMs structure and the utilization of D/B diodes, each SM capacitor is effectively controlled individually without requiring a voltage sensor across each SM capacitor. Generation of the commonly used pulse waveforms in electroporation applications is possible, while assuring balanced capacitors, hence SM voltages. The proposed BMPG has several topological variations such as utilizing a buck-boost converter at the input stage and replacing the HB-SM with full-bridge SMs. The proposed BMPG topology is assessed by simulation and scaled-down proof-of-concept experimentation to explore its viability for electroporation applications.
Shamim, Md. Hosne Mobarok; Alkhazragi, Omar; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa(IEEE Access, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019-10-01)[Article]
We implemented a tunable dual-longitudinal-mode spacing InGaN/GaN green (521–528 nm) laser diode by employing a self-injection locking scheme that is based on an external cavity configuration and utilizing either a high-or partial-reflecting mirror. A tunable longitudinal-mode spacing of 0.20 – 5.96 nm was accomplished, corresponding to a calculated frequency difference of 0.22–6.51 THz, as a result. The influence of operating current and temperature on the system performance was also investigated with a measured maximum side-mode-suppression ratio of 30.4 dB and minimum dual-mode peak optical power ratio of 0.03 dB. To shed light on the operation of the dual-wavelength device arising from the tunable longitudinal-mode spacing mechanism, the underlying physics is qualitatively described. To the best of our knowledge, this tunable longitudinal-mode-spacing dual-wavelength device is novel, and has potential applications as an alternative means in millimeter wave and THz generation, thus possibly addressing the terahertz technology gap. The dual-wavelength operation is also attractive for high-resolution imaging and broadband wireless communication.
Elserougi, Ahmed; Abdelsalam, Ibrahim; Massoud, Ahmed; Ahmed, Shehab(IEEE Access, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019-09-13)[Article]
This paper presents small-signal modeling, stability analysis, and controller design of a nonisolated bidirectional hybrid-modular DC-DC Converter for DC grid applications. The DC-DC converter can be used to interconnect two different DC voltage levels in a medium-/high-voltage DC grid. Half-bridge Sub-Modules (SMs) and a high-voltage valve are the main components of the converter. The high-voltage valve can be implemented via employing series-connected Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). Operation with zero voltage switching of the involved high-voltage valve is feasible, i.e., there is no concern pertinent to dynamic voltage sharing among the series-connected IGBTs. The power is transferred from one side to another through the involved SMs, where their capacitors are connected in series across the high-voltage side, while they are connected sequentially across the low-voltage side. In this paper, the state-space averaging technique is employed to derive the small-signal model of the presented converter for controller design. Closed-form expression of the duty cycle-to-inductor current transfer function is extracted. Comparison between simulation results of the small-signal model and the detailed circuit model is presented to authenticate the accuracy of the derived small-signal model. Finally, a scaled-down prototype is used to verify the accuracy of the small-signal model.
Boukhedimi, Ikram; Kammoun, Abla; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim(IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019-09-04)[Article]
This work investigates the uplink of massive MIMO systems using multi-cell MMSE (M-MMSE) combining that was shown to yield unbounded capacity in Rayleigh fading. All intra and inter-cell channels are correlated with distinct per-user Rician factors and channel correlation matrices, pilot contamination and imperfect channel estimation. First, a closed-form approximation of the spectral efficiency (SE) is derived thus enabling to demonstrate that, under certain conditions on the correlation matrices, M-MMSE generates unbounded SE in Rician fading. Second, the impact of inter-cell LoS components is examined in favorable propagation conditions, and, interestingly, shown to be more beneficial in terms of SE than when these interfering links are entirely scattered.
Saeed, Nasir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.(IEEE Access, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019-08-27)[Article]
Magnetic Induction (MI) is an efficient wireless communication method to deploy operational internet of underground things (IoUT) for oil and gas reservoirs. The IoUT consists of underground things which are capable of sensing the underground environment and communicating with the surface. The MI-based IoUT enable many applications, such as monitoring of the oil rigs, optimized fracturing, and optimized extraction. Most of these applications are dependent on the location of the underground things and therefore require accurate localization techniques. The existing localization techniques for MI-based underground sensing networks are two-dimensional and do not characterize the achievable accuracy of the developed methods, which are both crucial and challenging tasks. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel three-dimensional (3D) localization technique based on Isometric scaling (Isomap) for future IoUT. Moreover, this paper also presents the closed-form expression of the Cramer Rao lower bound (CRLB) for the proposed technique, which takes into account the channel parameters of the underground magnetic-induction. The derived CRLB provides the suggestions for an MI-based underground localization system by associating the system parameters with the error trend. Numerical results demonstrate that localization accuracy is affected by different channel and networks parameters such as the number of underground things, ranging error variance, size of the coils, and the transmitting power. The root mean square error performance of the proposed technique shows that increase in the number of turns of the coils, transmitting power, and the number of anchors improves the performance. Results also show that the proposed technique is robust to the ranging error variance in the range of 10 to 30 %; however, a further increase in the ranging error variance does not allow to achieve acceptable accuracy. Also, the results show that the proposed technique achieves an average of 30 % better localization accuracy compare to the traditional methods.
Obeed, Mohanad; Dahrouj, Hayssam; Salhab, Anas M.; Zummo, Salam A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim(IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019-08-27)[Article]
Visible light communications (VLC) have emerged as a strong candidate for meeting the escalating demand for high data rates. In this paper, we consider a VLC network, where multiple access points (APs) serve both energy-harvesting users (EHUs), i.e., users who harvest energy from light emitted by diodes and information users (IUs), i.e., users who gather data information. In order to jointly balance the achievable sum rate at the IUs and the energy harvested by the EHUs, the paper considers maximizing a network-wide utility, which consists of a weighted sum of the IUs sum rate and the EHUs harvested energy, subject to individual IU rate constraint, individual EHU harvested-energy constraint, and AP power constraints, so as to jointly determine the direct current (DC) bias value at each AP, and the power of the alternating-current (AC) signals of the users. A difficult non-convex optimization problem is solved using an iterative approach which relies on inner convex approximations, and compensates for the used approximations using proper outer-loop updates. The paper further considers solving the special cases of the problem, i.e., maximizing the sum rate, and maximizing the total harvested-energy, both subject to the same constraints. Numerical results highlight the significant performance improvement of the proposed algorithms, and illustrate the impacts of the network parameters on the performance trade-off between the sum rate and harvested-energy.
Liao, Hanguang; Zhang, Qingle; Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Kuo, Yen Hung; Mishra, Nidhi; Shamim, Atif(IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019-08-26)[Article]
A low-cost and additively manufactured 3D Antenna-in-Package (AiP) with quasi-isotropic radiation is proposed for a marine animals monitoring system. The antenna is based on a meandered dipole folded as a split ring resonator (SRR) structure, which can generate simultaneously a pair of orthogonal electric and magnetic dipoles, thus providing a quasi-isotropic radiation pattern. The antenna (integrated with a balun) has been inkjet-printed on a 3D-printed buoyant cone structure, which acts also as the system package to house the electronics and the battery. The antenna designed at 2.4 GHz is electrically small, with a ka = 0.49, and has a bandwidth of 70 MHz (2.9%). The measured gain deviation of the antenna (maximum to minimum) is near 3 dB in bandwidth, thus qualifying it as a quasi-isotropic antenna. Field tests of the antenna in the active state (integrated with the electronics) confirm a reliable communication range of 240 m in any direction in the azimuthal plane.
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