We reported on the design, demonstration, and analysis of white lighting systems based on GaN laser diodes. Compared to light-emitting-diodes (LEDs), lasers have been proposed for the development of high-power light sources for many potential advantages, including circumventing efficiency droop, reduced light emitting surface, directional beam characteristics. Laser-based white light sources are also attractive for visible light communication (VLC) applications that enabling lighting and communication dual functionalities. In this work, we detailed the color-rendering index (CRI), correlated color temperature (CCT), and luminous flux analysis of laser white light sources by using the GaN laser diode exciting color converters at various driving conditions. By using a blue-emitting laser exciting a yellow YAG phosphor crystal, a luminous flux greater than 600 lm has been achieved with a moderate CRI of 67.2. By constructing a white lighting system using phosphor crystal array based on a reflection configuration, an improved CRI of 74.4 and a luminous flux of ~400 lm with a CCT of 6425 K was obtained at 3A. Using a novel ceramic phosphor plate as color converter, the CRI for the white light source has been further improved to ~ 84.1 with a CCT of ~ 4981 K, which suggests that the laser-based white light source is capable of high-quality illumination applications. The CCT of the white laser sources can be engineered from 5000 K to 6500 K and a potential approach to use laser array for high power white lighting is discussed.
High-speed visible light communications (VLC) has been identified at an essential part of communication technology for 5G network. VLC offers the unique advantages of unregulated and secure channels, free of EM interference. Compared with the LED-based VLC transmitter, laser-based photonic systems are promising for compact, droop-free, and high-speed white lighting and VLC applications, ideal for ultra-fast 5G network and beyond. Besides the potential for achieving high data rate free-space communication links, i.e. the Li-Fi network, laser-based VLC technology can also enable underwater wireless optical communications (UWOC) for many important applications. In this paper, the recent research progress and highlights in the fields of laser-based VLC and UWOC have been reviewed with a focused discussion on the performance of various light sources, including the modulation characteristics of GaNbased edge emitting laser diodes (EELDs), superluminescent diodes (SLDs) and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). Apart from the utilization of discrete components for building transceiver in VLC systems, the development of III-nitride laser-based photonic integration has been featured. Such on-chip integration offers many advantages, including having a small-footprint, high-speed, and low power consumption. Finally, we discuss the considerations of wavelength selection for various VLC and UWOC applications. Comparison of infrared (IR) and visible lasers for channels with high turbulence and the study of ultraviolet (UV) and visible lasers for non-line-of-sight (NLOS) communications are presented.
Holguin Lerma, Jorge Alberto; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.(Applied Physics Express, Japan Society of Applied Physics, 2019-03-27)[Article]
We demonstrate narrow-line green laser emission at 513.85 nm with a linewidth of 31 pm and side-mode suppression ratio of 36.9 dB, operating under continuous-wave injection at room temperature. A high-order (40th) distributed-feedback surface grating fabricated on multimode InGaN-based green laser diodes via a focused ion beam produces resolution-limited, single-mode lasing with an optical power of 14 mW, lasing threshold of 7.27 kA cm−2, and maximum slope efficiency of 0.32 W A−1. Our realization of narrow-line green laser diodes opens a pathway toward efficient optical communications, sensing, and atomic clocks.
Alatawi, Abdullah; Holguin Lerma, Jorge Alberto; Kang, Chun Hong; Shen, Chao; Subedi, Ram Chandra; Albadri, Abdulrahman M.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.(Optics Express, The Optical Society, 2018-09-25)[Article]
We demonstrated a high-power (474 mW) blue superluminescent diode (SLD) on c-plane GaN-substrate for speckle-free solid-state lighting (SSL), and high-speed visible light communication (VLC) link. The device, emitting at 442 nm, showed a large spectral bandwidth of 6.5 nm at an optical power of 105 mW. By integrating a YAG-phosphor-plate to the SLD, a CRI of 85.1 and CCT of 3392 K were measured, thus suitable for solid-state lighting. The SLD shows a relatively large 3-dB modulation bandwidth of >400 MHz, while a record high data rate of 1.45 Gigabit-per-second (Gbps) link has been achieved below forward-error correction (FEC) limit under non-return-to-zero on-off keying (NRZ-OOK) modulation scheme. Our results suggest that SLD is a promising alternative for simultaneous speckle-free white lighting and Gbps data communication dual functionalities.
Shamim, Md Hosne Mobarok; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa(Optics Letters, The Optical Society, 2018-10-08)[Article]
We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first employment of a self-injection locking scheme for the demonstration of a tunable InGaN/GaN semiconductor laser diode. We have achieved a 7.11 nm (521.10–528.21 nm) tunability in a green color with different injection currents and temperatures. The system exhibited mode spectral linewidth as narrow as ∼69 pm and a side mode suppression ratio as high as ∼28 dB, with a maximum optical power of ∼16.7 mW. In the entire tuning window, extending beyond 520 nm, a spectral linewidth of ≤100 pm, high power, and stable performance were consistently achieved, making this, to the best of our knowledge, the first-of-its-kind compact tunable laser system attractive for spectroscopy, imaging, sensing systems, and visible light communication.
Shen, Chao; Ng, Tien Khee; Lee, Changmin; Nakamura, Shuji; Speck, James S.; DenBaars, Steven P.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; El-Desouki, Munir M.; Ooi, Boon S.(Optics Express, The Optical Society, 2018-02-14)[Article]
GaN-based semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and its integration with laser diode (LD) is an essential building block yet to be demonstrated for III-nitride photonic integrated circuits (PICs) at visible wavelength. This paper presents the InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) based dual-section LD consisting of integrated amplifier and laser gain regions fabricated on a semipolar GaN substrate. The threshold current in the laser gain region was favorably reduced from 229mA to 135mA at SOA driving voltages, VSOA, of 0V and 6.25V, respectively. The amplification effect was measured based on a large gain of 5.7 dB at VSOA = 6.25V from the increased optical output power of 8.2 mW to 30.5 mW. Such integrated amplifier can be modulated to achieve Gbps data communication using on-off keying technique. The monolithically integrated amplifier-LD paves the way towards the III-nitride on-chip photonic system, providing a compact, low-cost, and multi-functional solution for applications such as smart lighting and visible light communications.
Sun, Xiaobin; Cai, Wenqi; Alkhazragi, Omar; Ooi, Ee-Ning; He, Hongsen; Chaaban, Anas; Shen, Chao; Oubei, Hassan M.; Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Ng, Tien Khee; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ooi, Boon S.(Optics Express, The Optical Society, 2018-05-04)[Article]
For circumventing the alignment requirement of line-of-sight (LOS) underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC), we demonstrated a non-line-of-sight (NLOS) UWOC link adequately enhanced using ultraviolet (UV) 375-nm laser. Path loss was chosen as a figure-of-merit for link performance in this investigation, which considers the effects of geometries, water turbidity, and transmission wavelength. The experiments suggest that path loss decreases with smaller azimuth angles, higher water turbidity, and shorter wavelength due in part to enhanced scattering utilizing 375-nm radiation. We highlighted that it is feasible to extend the current findings for long distance NLOS UWOC link in turbid water, such as harbor water.
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